Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a highly pathogenic, tick-borne member of the family and the genus . To better elucidate the pathogenesis of CCHFV, we analysed the host innate immune response induced in antigen-presenting cells (APCs) infected by CCHFV. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (MPs) were both shown to be permissive for CCHFV and to replicate the virus, as monitored by genomic and antigenomic strand quantification. Virus replication was, however, controlled, corroborating an efficient alpha interferon-induced response. The upregulation of CD-83 and CD-86 indicated that CCHFV induced a partial maturation of DCs, which were also shown to activate the secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, but no tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-). On the other hand, in MPs, CCHFV infection elicited a high IL-6 and TNF- response and a moderate chemokine response. Nevertheless, when we compared these APC responses with those seen after infection with Dugbe virus (DUGV), a mildly pathogenic virus genetically close to CCHFV, we found that, in spite of some similarities, DUGV induced a higher cytokine/chemokine response in MPs. These results suggest that CCHFV is able to inhibit the activation of inflammatory mediators selectively in infection and that these differences could be relevant in pathogenesis.


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vol. , part 1, pp. 189–198

Immunofluorescence of CCHFV-infected DCs and MPs at 24 h p.i.

DUGV induces phenotypic modifications and cytokine release in infected DCs and MPs.

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