Hepatitis delta virus, the only member of the only species in the genus Deltavirus, is a unique human pathogen. Its ~1.7 kb circular negative-sense RNA genome encodes a protein, hepatitis delta antigen, which occurs in two forms, small and large, both with unique functions. Hepatitis delta virus uses host RNA polymerase II to replicate via double rolling circle RNA synthesis. Newly synthesized linear RNAs are circularized after autocatalytic cleavage and ligation. Hepatitis delta virus requires the envelope of the helper virus, hepatitis B virus (family Hepadnaviridae), to produce infectious particles. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of Deltavirus which is available at www.ictv.global/report/deltavirus.

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