1887

Abstract

Noroviruses are recognized as the major global cause of sporadic and epidemic non-bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Molecular mechanisms driving norovirus evolution are the accumulation of point mutations and recombination. Intragenotypic recombination has long been postulated to be a driving force of GII.4 noroviruses, the predominant genotype circulating in humans for over two decades. Increasingly, emergence and re-emergence of different intragenotype recombinants have been reported. The number and types of norovirus recombinants remained undefined until the 2007 Journal of General Virology research article ‘Norovirus recombination’ reported an assembly of 20 hitherto unclassified intergenotypic norovirus recombinant types. In the intervening decade, a host of novel recombinants has been analysed. New recombination breakpoints have been described, in vitro and in vivo studies supplement in silico analyses, and advances have been made in analysing factors driving norovirus recombination. This work presents a timely overview of these data and focuses on important aspects of norovirus recombination and its role in norovirus molecular evolution. An overview of intergenogroup, intergenotype, intragenotype and ‘obligatory’ norovirus recombinants as detected via in silico methods in the field is provided, enlarging the scope of intergenotypic recombinant types to 80 in total, and notably including three intergenogroup recombinants. A recap of advances made studying norovirus recombination in the laboratory is given. Putative drivers and constraints of norovirus recombination are discussed and the potential link between recombination and norovirus zoonosis risk is examined.

Keyword(s): evolution , Norovirus and Recombination
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2018-06-15
2019-09-18
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