1887

Abstract

A unique hepatitis E virus (HEV) strain was identified as the aetiological agent of acute hepatitis in a United States (US) patient who had recently returned from vacation in Thailand, a country in which HEV is endemic. Sequence comparison showed that this HEV strain was most similar, but not identical, to the swine and human HEV strains recovered in the US. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this new HEV isolate was closer to genotype 3 strains than to the genotype 1 strains common in Asia. The fact that this HEV was closely related to strains recovered in countries where HEV is not endemic and was highly divergent from Asian HEV strains raises the questions of where the patient’s infection was acquired and of whether strains are geographically as localized as once thought.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-82-7-1687
2001-07-01
2019-09-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/82/7/0821687a.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-82-7-1687&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Arankalle, V. A., Goverdhan, M. K. & Banerjee, K. ( 1994; ). Antibodies against hepatitis E virus in Old World monkeys. Journal of Viral Hepatitis 1, 125-129.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Balayan, M. S. ( 1997; ). Epidemiology of hepatitis E virus infection. Journal of Viral Hepatitis 4, 155-165.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Balayan, M. S., Usmanov, R. K., Zamiatina, N. A., Dzhumalieva, D. I. & Karas, F. R. ( 1990; ). Experimental hepatitis E in domestic piglets. Journal of Medical Virology 32, 58-59.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Buisson, Y., Grandadam, M., Nicand, E., Cheval, P., van Cuyck-Gandre, H., Innis, B. L., Rehel, P., Coursaget, P., Teyssou, R. & Tsarev, S. ( 2000; ). Identification of a novel hepatitis E virus in Nigeria. Journal of General Virology 81, 903-909.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Clayson, E. T., Innis, B. L., Myint, K. S., Naraputi, S., Vaughn, D. W., Giri, S., Ranabhat, P. & Shrestha, M. P. ( 1995; ). Detection of hepatitis E infection in domestic swine in Kathmandu Valley in Nepal. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 53, 228-232.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Erker, J. C., Desai, S. M., Schlauder, G. G., Dawson, G. J. & Mushahwar, I. K. ( 1999; ). A hepatitis E variant from the United States: molecular characterization and transmission in cynomolgus macaques. Journal of General Virology 80, 681-690.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Favorov, M. O., Kosoy, M. Y., Tsarev, S. A., Childs, J. E. & Margolis, H. S. ( 2000; ). Prevalence of antibody to hepatitis E virus among rodents in the United States. Journal of Infectious Diseases 181, 449-455.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Garbavenko, O., Anderson, D., Shroeder, B. & Croxson, C. (2000). Evidence of swine hepatitis E virus in New Zealand. 10th International Symposium on Viral Hepatitis and Liver Disease, Atlanta, USA, April 9–13, abstract E016.
  9. Hsieh, S. Y., Yang, P. Y., Ho, Y. P., Chu, C. M. & Liaw, Y. F. ( 1998; ). Identification of a novel strain of hepatitis E virus responsible for sporadic acute hepatitis in Taiwan. Journal of Medical Virology 55, 300-304.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Huang, C. C., Nguyen, D., Fernandez, J., Yun, K. Y., Fry, K. E., Bradley, D. W., Tam, A. W. & Reyes, G. R. ( 1992; ). Molecular cloning and sequencing of the Mexico isolate of hepatitis E virus. Virology 191, 550-558.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Huang, R. T., Nakazono, N., Ishii, K., Kawamata, O., Kawaguchi, R. & Tsukada, Y. ( 1995; ). II. Existing variations on the gene structure of hepatitis E virus strains from some regions of China. Journal of Medical Virology 47, 303-308.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Kabrane-Lazizi, Y., Fine, J. B., Glass, G. E., Higa, H., Diwan, A., Gibbs, C. J., Meng, X.-J., Emerson, S. U. & Purcell, R. H. ( 1999; ). Evidence of wide spread infection of wild rats with hepatitis E virus in the United States. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 61, 331-335.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Karetnyi, Y. V., Dzhumalieva, D. I., Usmanov, R. K., Titova, I. P., Lituak, Y. A. & Balayan, M. S. ( 1993; ). Possible involvement of rodents in the spread of hepatitis E (in Russian). Journal of Microbiology Epidemiology and Immunology 41, 52-56.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Mast, E. E., Kuramoto, I. K., Favorov, M. O., Shoening, V. R., Burkholder, B. T., Shapiro, C. N. & Holland, P. V. ( 1997; ). Prevalence of and risk factors for antibody to hepatitis E virus seroreactivity among bloods donors in northern California. Journal of Infectious Diseases 176, 34-40.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Meng, X.-J., Purcell, R. H., Halbur, P. G., Lehman, J. R., Webb, D. M., Tsareva, T. S., Haynes, J. S., Thacker, B. J. & Emerson, S. U. ( 1997; ). A novel virus in swine is closely related to the human hepatitis E virus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 94, 9860-9865.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Meng, X.-J., Halbur, P. G., Shapiro, M. S., Govindarajan, S., Bruna, J. D., Mushahwar, I. K., Purcell, R. H. & Emerson, S. U. ( 1998; ). Genetic and experimental evidence for cross-species infection by swine hepatitis E virus. Journal of Virology 72, 9714-9721.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Paul, D. A., Knigge, M. F., Ritter, A., Gutierrez, R., Pilot-Matias, T., Chau, K. H. & Dawson, G. J. ( 1994; ). Determination of hepatitis E seroprevalence by using recombinant fusion protein and synthetic peptides. Journal of Infectious Diseases 169, 801-806.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Purcell, R. H. ( 1996; ). Hepatitis E virus. In Fields Virology , pp. 2831-2843. Edited by B. N. Fields, D. M. Knipe & P. M. Howley. Philadelphia:Lippincott–Raven.
  19. Reyes, G. R., Huang, C. C., Tam, A. W. & Purdy, M. A. ( 1993; ). Molecular organization and replication of hepatitis E virus (HEV). Archives of Virology 7, 15-29.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Robinson, R. A., Burgess, W. H., Emerson, S. U., Leibowitz, R. S., Sosnovtseva, S. A., Tsarev, S. & Purcell, R. H. ( 1998; ). Structural characterization of recombinant hepatitis E virus ORF2 proteins in baculovirus-infected insect cells. Protein Expression and Purification 12, 75-84.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Schlauder, G. G., Dawson, G. J., Erker, J. C., Kwo, P. Y., Knigge, M. F., Smalley, D. L., Rosenblatt, J. E., Desai, S. M. & Mushahwar, I. K. ( 1998; ). The sequence and phylogenetic analysis of a novel hepatitis E virus isolated from a patient with acute hepatitis reported in the United States. Journal of General Virology 79, 449-456.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Schlauder, G. G., Desai, S. M., Zanetti, A. R., Tassopoulos, N. C. & Mushahwar, I. K. ( 1999; ). Novel hepatitis E virus (HEV) isolates from Europe: evidence for additional genotypes of HEV. Journal of Medical Virology 57, 243-251.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Schlauder, G. G., Frider, B., Sookoian, S., Castano, G. C. & Mushahwar, I. K. ( 2000; ). Identification of 2 novel isolates of hepatitis E virus in Argentina. Journal of Infectious Diseases 182, 294-297.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Stapleton, J. T. ( 1995; ). Host immune response to hepatitis A virus. Journal of Infectious Diseases 171(Suppl. 1), 9–14.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Stewart, D. R., Morris, T. S., Purcell, R. H. & Emerson, S. U. ( 1997; ). Detection of antibodies to the nonstructural 3C proteinase of hepatitis A virus. Journal of Infectious Diseases 176, 593-601.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Tam, A. W., Smith, M. M., Guerra, M. E., Huang, C. C., Bradley, D. W., Fry, K. E. & Reyes, G. R. ( 1991; ). Hepatitis E virus (HEV): molecular cloning and sequencing of the full-length viral genome. Virology 185, 120-131.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Thomas, D. L., Yarbough, G. H., Vlahov, D., Tsarev, S. A., Nelson, K. E., Saah, A. J. & Purcell, R. H. ( 1997; ). Seroreactivity to hepatitis E virus in areas where the disease is not endemic. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 35, 1244-1247.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Tsarev, S. A., Emerson, S. U., Reyes, G. R., Tsareva, T. S., Legters, L. J., Malik, I. A, Iqbal, M. & Purcell, R. H. ( 1992; ). Characterization of a prototype strain of hepatitis E virus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 89, 559-563.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Tsarev, S. A., Tsareva, T. S., Emerson, S. U., Kapikian, A. Z., Ticehurst, J., London, W. & Purcell, R. H. ( 1993; ). ELISA for antibody to hepatitis E virus (HEV) based on complete open-reading frame 2 protein expressed in insect cells: identification of HEV infection in primates. Journal of Infectious Diseases 168, 369-378.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Tsarev, S. A., Binn, L. N., Gomatos, P. J., Arthur, R. R., Monier, M. K., van Cuyck-Gandre, H., Longer, C. F. & Innis, B. L. ( 1999; ). Phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis E virus isolates from Egypt. Journal of Medical Virology 57, 68-74.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Usmanov, R. K., Balayan, M. S., Dvoinikova, O. V., Alynbayeva, D. B., Zamayatina, N. A., Kazachkov, Y. A. & Belov, V. I. ( 1994; ). Experimental hepatitis E infection in lambs. Voprosy Virusologii 39, 165-168.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Wang, Y., Ling, R., Erker, J. C., Zhang, H., Li, H., Desai, S. M., Mushahwar, I. K. & Harrison, T. J. ( 1999; ). A divergent genotype of hepatitis E virus in Chinese patients with acute hepatitis. Journal of General Virology 80, 169-177.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Wang, Y., Zhang, H., Ling, R., Li, H. & Harrison, T. J. ( 2000; ). The complete sequence of hepatitis E virus genotype 4 reveals an alternative strategy for translation of open reading frames 2 and 3. Journal of General Virology 81, 1675-1686.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Zaaijer, H. L., Mauser-Bunschoten, E. P., ten Veen, J. H., Kapprell, H. P., Kok, M., van den Berg, H. M. & Lelie, P. N. ( 1995; ). Hepatitis E virus antibodies among patients with hemophilia, blood donors, and hepatitis patients. Journal of Medical Virology 46, 244-246.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Zanetti, A. R., Schlauder, G. G., Romano, L., Tanzi, E., Fabris, P., Dawson, G. J. & Mushahwar, I. K. ( 1999; ). Identification of a novel variant of hepatitis E virus in Italy. Journal of Medical Virology 57, 356-360.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-82-7-1687
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-82-7-1687
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error