1887

Abstract

Distinctive genotypes of JC virus have been described for the major continental landmasses. Studies on European-Americans and small cohorts in Europe showed predominantly Type 1. Types 2 and 7 are found in Asia, and Types 3 and 6 in Africa. These genotypes differ in sequence by about 1–3%. Each genotype may have several subtypes which differ from each other by about 0·5–1%. The genotypes can be defined by a distinctive pattern of nucleotides in a typing region of the 1 gene. This genotyping approach has been confirmed by phylogenetic reconstruction using the entire genome exclusive of the rearranging regulatory region. In this first large European study, we report on the urinary excretion of JCV DNA of 350 individuals from Poland, Hungary, Germany and Spain. We included Gypsy cohorts in Hungary (Roma), Germany (Sinti), and Spain (Gitano), as well as Basques in Spain. We show that while Type 1 predominates in Europe, the proportions of Type 1A and 1B may differ from East to Southwest Europe. Type 4, closely related to the Type 1 sequence (only ∼1% difference) was a minor genotype in Germany, Poland and Spain, but represented the majority in Basques. The Gitanos in Spain showed a variant Type 4 sequence termed ‘Rom-1’. Interestingly, neither the Gitanos in Spain, nor Sinti or Roma in Germany or Hungary showed the Type 2 or Type 7 genotype that might be expected if their origins were in an Asian population.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-82-5-1221
2001-05-01
2019-08-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/82/5/0821221a.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-82-5-1221&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Agostini, H. T. & Stoner, G. L. ( 1995; ). Amplification of the complete polyomavirus JC genome from brain, cerebrospinal fluid and urine using pre-PCR restriction enzyme digestion. Journal of Neurovirology 1, 316-320.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Agostini, H. T., Brubaker, G. R., Shao, J., Levin, A., Ryschkewitsch, C. F., Blattner, W. A. & Stoner, G. L. ( 1995; ). BK virus and a new type of JC virus excreted by HIV-1 positive patients in rural Tanzania. Archives of Virology 140, 1919-1934.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Agostini, H. T., Ryschkewitsch, C. F., Singer, E. J. & Stoner, G. L. ( 1996a; ). Co-infection with two JC virus genotypes in brain, cerebrospinal fluid or urinary tract detected by direct cycle sequencing of PCR products. Journal of Neurovirology 2, 259-267.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Agostini, H. T., Ryschkewitsch, C. F. & Stoner, G. L. ( 1996b; ). Genotype profile of human polyomavirus JC excreted in urine of immunocompetent individuals. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 34, 159-164.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Agostini, H. T., Ryschkewitsch, C. F., Brubaker, G. R., Shao, J. & Stoner, G. L. ( 1997a; ). Five complete genomes of JC virus Type 3 from Africans and African Americans. Archives of Virology 142, 637-655.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Agostini, H. T., Ryschkewitsch, C. F., Singer, E. J. & Stoner, G. L. ( 1997b; ). JC virus regulatory region rearrangements and genotypes in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: two independent aspects of virus variation. Journal of General Virology 78, 659-664.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Agostini, H. T., Yanagihara, R., Davis, V., Ryschkewitsch, C. F. & Stoner, G. L. ( 1997c; ). Asian genotypes of JC virus in Native Americans and in a Pacific Island population: markers of viral evolution and human migration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 94, 14542-14546.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Agostini, H. T., Ryschkewitsch, C. F., Singer, E. J. & Stoner, G. L. ( 1998a; ). JC virus Type 1 has multiple subtypes: three new complete genomes. Journal of General Virology 79, 801-805.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Agostini, H. T., Ryschkewitsch, C. F. & Stoner, G. L. ( 1998b; ). Complete genome of a JC virus genotype Type 6 from the brain of an African American with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Journal of Human Virology 1, 267-272.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Agostini, H. T., Ryschkewitsch, C. F. & Stoner, G. L. ( 1998c; ). Rearrangements of archetypal regulatory regions in JC virus genomes from urine. Research in Virology 149, 163-170.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Agostini, H. T., Jobes, D. V., Chima, S. C., Ryschkewitsch, C. F. & Stoner, G. L. ( 1999; ). Natural and pathogenic variation in the JC virus genome. In Recent Research in Developmental Virology , pp. 683-701. Edited by S. G. Pandalai. Trivandrum, India: Transworld Research Network.
  12. Ault, G. S. & Stoner, G. L. ( 1992; ). Two major types of JC virus defined in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy brain by early and late coding region DNA sequences. Journal of General Virology 73, 2669-2678.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Bischoff, J. L., Soler, N., Maroto, J. & Julia, R. ( 1989; ). Abrupt Mousterian/Aurignacian boundary at c. 40 ka bp: accelerator 14C dates from L’Arbreda cave (Catalunya, Spain). Journal of Archaeological Science 16, 563-576.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Bofill-Mas, S., Pina, S. & Girones, R. ( 2000; ). Documenting the epidemiologic patterns of polyomaviruses in human populations by studying their presence in urban sewage. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66, 238-245.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Cavalli-Sforza, L. L. (2000). Genes, Peoples, and Languages. New York: North Point Press.
  16. Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., Menozzi, P. & Piazza, A. (1994). The History and Geography of Human Genes. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  17. Chang, D. C., Wang, M. L., Ou, W. C., Lee, M. S., Ho, H. N. & Tsai, R. T. ( 1996; ). Genotypes of human polyomaviruses in urine samples of pregnant women in Taiwan. Journal of Medical Virology 48, 95-101.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Chang, D., Sugimoto, C., Wang, M., Tsai, R. T. & Yogo, Y. ( 1999; ). JC virus genotypes in a Taiwan aboriginal tribe (Bunun): implications for its population history. Archives of Virology 144, 1081-1090.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Chima, S. C., Ryschkewitsch, C. F. & Stoner, G. L. ( 1998; ). Molecular epidemiology of human polyomavirus JC in the Biaka pygmies and Bantu of Central Africa. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Rio de Janeiro 93, 615-623.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Chima, S. C., Ryschkewitsch, C. F., Fan, K. J. & Stoner, G. L. ( 2000; ). Polyomavirus JC genotypes in an urban United States population reflect the history of African origin and genetic admixture in modern African Americans. Human Biology 72, 837-850.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Chowdhury, M., Taylor, J. P., Chang, C.-F., Rappaport, J. & Khalili, K. ( 1992; ). Evidence that a sequence similar to TAR is important for induction of the JC virus late promoter by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat. Journal of Virology 66, 7355-7361.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Cruz Fernandez Castro, M. (1995). A History of Spain: Iberia in Prehistory. Oxford: Blackwell.
  23. Duarte, C., Mauricio, J., Pettitt, P. B., Suoto, P., Trinkaus, E., van der Plicht, H. & Zilhao, J. ( 1999; ). The early Upper Paleolithic human skeleton from the Abrigo do Lagar Velho (Portugal) and modern human emergence in Iberia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 96, 7604-7609.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Elsner, C. & Dörries, K. ( 1998; ). Human polyomavirus JC control region variants in persistently infected CNS and kidney tissue. Journal of General Virology 79, 789-799.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Fraser, A. (1995). The Gypsies. Oxford: Blackwell.
  26. Frisque, R. J., Bream, G. L. & Cannella, M. T. ( 1984; ). Human polyomavirus JC virus genome. Journal of Virology 51, 458-469.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Gabunia, L., Vekua, A., Lordkipanidze, D., Swisher, C. C.III, Ferring, R., Justus, A., Nioradze, M., Tvalchrelidze, M., Antón, S. C., Bosinski, G., Jöris, O., De Lumley, M. A., Majsuradze, G. & Mouskhelishvili, A. ( 2000; ). Earliest Pleistocene hominid cranial remains from Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia: taxonomy, geological setting, and age. Science 288, 1019-1025.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Gallia, G. L., Houff, S. A., Major, E. O. & Khalili, K. ( 1997; ). JC virus infection of lymphocytes – revisited. Journal of Infectious Diseases 176, 1603-1609.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Gamble, C. (1986). The Palaeolithic Settlement of Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  30. Guo, J., Kitamura, T., Ebihara, H., Sugimoto, C., Kunitake, T., Takehisa, J., Na, Y. Q., Al-Ahdal, M. N., Hallin, A., Kawabe, K., Taguchi, F. & Yogo, Y. ( 1996; ). Geographical distribution of the human polyomavirus JC virus type A and B and isolation of a new type from Ghana. Journal of General Virology 77, 919-927.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Guo, J., Sugimoto, C., Kitamura, T., Ebihara, H., Kato, A., Guo, Z., Liu, J., Zheng, S. P., Wang, Y. L., Na, Y. Q., Suzuki, M., Taguchi, F. & Yogo, Y. ( 1998; ). Four geographically distinct genotypes of JC virus are prevalent in China and Mongolia: implications for the racial composition of modern China. Journal of General Virology 79, 2499-2505.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Hatwell, J. N. & Sharp, P. M. ( 2000; ). Evolution of human polyomavirus JC. Journal of General Virology 81, 1191-1200.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Heilbronn, R., Albrecht, I., Stephan, S., Bürkle, A. & zur Hausen, H. ( 1993; ). Human cytomegalovirus induces JC virus DNA replication in human fibroblasts. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 90, 11406-11410.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Jin, L., Underhill, P. A., Doctor, V., Davis, R. W., Shen, P. D., Cavalli-Sforza, L. L. & Oefner, P. J. ( 1999; ). Distribution of haplotypes from a chromosome 21 region distinguishes multiple prehistoric human migrations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 96, 3796-3800.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Jobes, D. V., Chima, S. C., Ryschkewitsch, C. F. & Stoner, G. L. ( 1998; ). Phylogenetic analysis of 22 complete genomes of the human polyomavirus JC virus. Journal of General Virology 79, 2491-2498.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Jobes, D. V., Friedlaender, J. S., Mgone, C. S., Koki, G., Alpers, M. P., Ryschkewitsch, C. F. & Stoner, G. L. ( 1999; ). A novel JC virus variant found in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea has a 21-base pair deletion in the agnoprotein gene. Journal of Human Virology 2, 350-358.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Loeber, G. & Dörries, K. ( 1988; ). DNA rearrangements in organ-specific variants of polyomavirus JC strain GS. Journal of Virology 62, 1730-1735.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Ou, W.-C., Tsai, R.-T., Wang, M., Fung, C.-Y., Hseu, T.-H. & Chang, D. ( 1997; ). Genomic cloning and sequence analysis of Taiwan-3 human polyomavirus JC virus. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 96, 511-516.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Renfrew, C. (1987). Archaeology and Language: The Puzzle of Indo-European Origins. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  40. Richards, M., Corte-Real, H., Forster, P., Macaulay, V., Wilkinson-Herbots, H., Demaine, A., Papiha, S., Hedges, R., Bandelt, H.-J. & Sykes, B. ( 1996; ). Paleolithic and Neolithic lineages in the European mitochondrial gene pool. American Journal of Human Genetics 59, 185-203.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Ryschkewitsch, C. F., Friedlaender, J. S., Mgone, C. S., Jobes, D. V., Agostini, H. T., Chima, S. C., Alpers, M. P., Koki, G., Yanagihara, R. & Stoner, G. L. ( 2000; ). Human polyomavirus JC variants in Papua New Guinea and Guam reflect ancient population settlement and viral evolution. Microbes & Infection 2, 987-996.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Stoner, G. L., Agostini, H. T., Ryschkewitsch, C. F. & Komoly, S. ( 1998; ). JC virus excreted by multiple sclerosis patients and paired controls from Hungary. Multiple Sclerosis 4, 45-48.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Stoner, G. L., Jobes, D. V., Fernandez Cobo, M., Agostini, H. T., Chima, S. C. & Ryschkewitsch, C. F. ( 2000; ). JC virus as a marker of human migration to the Americas. Microbes & Infection 2, 1905-1911.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Sugimoto, C., Kitamura, T., Guo, J., Al-Ahdal, M. N., Shchelkunov, S. N., Otova, B., Ondrejka, P., Chollet, J. Y., El-Safi, S., Ettayebi, M., Grésenguet, G., Kocagöz, T., Chaiyarasamee, S., Thant, K. Z., Thein, S., Moe, K., Kobayashi, N., Taguchi, F. & Yogo, Y. ( 1997; ). Typing of urinary JC virus DNA offers a novel means of tracing human migrations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 94, 9191-9196.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Swofford, D. L. (2001). PAUP 4.0 User’s Manual: Phylogenetic Analysis using Parsimony. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
  46. Tattersall, I. & Schwartz, J. H. ( 1999; ). Hominids and hybrids: the place of Neanderthals in human evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 96, 7117-7119.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Yogo, Y., Kitamura, T., Sugimoto, C., Ueki, T., Aso, Y., Hara, K. & Taguchi, F. ( 1990; ). Isolation of a possible archetypal JC virus DNA sequence from nonimmunocompromised individuals. Journal of Virology 64, 3139-3143.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Yogo, Y., Kitamura, T., Sugimoto, C., Hara, K., Iida, T., Taguchi, F., Tajima, A., Kawabe, K. & Aso, Y. ( 1991; ). Sequence rearrangement in JC virus DNAs molecularly cloned from immunosuppressed renal transplant patients. Journal of Virology 65, 2422-2428.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-82-5-1221
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-82-5-1221
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error