1887

Abstract

SARS-CoV-2 is mostly transmitted through close contact with infected people by infected aerosols and fomites. Ultraviolet subtype C (UVC) lamps and light-emitting diodes can be used to disrupt the transmission chain by disinfecting fomites, thus managing the disease outbreak progression. Here, we assess the ultraviolet wavelengths that are most effective in inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 on fomites. Variations in UVC wavelengths impact the dose required for disinfection of SARS-CoV-2 and alter how rapidly and effectively disruption of the virus transmission chain can be achieved. This study reveals that shorter wavelengths (254–268 nm) take a maximum of 6.25 mJ/cm over 5 s to obtain a target SARS-CoV-2 reduction of 99.9%. Longer wavelengths, like 280 nm, take longer irradiation time and higher dose to inactivate SARS-CoV-2. These observations emphasize that SARS-CoV-2 inactivation is wavelength-dependent.

  • This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/acmi/10.1099/acmi.0.000276
2021-11-02
2021-12-04
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/acmi/3/11/acmi000276.html?itemId=/content/journal/acmi/10.1099/acmi.0.000276&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Carleton T, Cornetet J, Huybers P, Meng KC, Proctor J. Global evidence for ultraviolet radiation decreasing COVID-19 growth rates. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2021; 118:e2012370118 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Heilingloh CS, Aufderhorst UW, Schipper L, Dittmer U, Witzke O et al. Susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2 to UV irradiation. Am J Infect Control 2020; 48:1273–1275 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Meyerowitz EA, Richterman A, Gandhi RT, Sax PE. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: a review of viral, host, and environmental factors. Ann Intern Med 2020; 174:69–79 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris DH, Holbrook MG, Gamble A et al. Aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 as compared with SARS-CoV-1. N Engl J Med 2020; 382:1564–1567 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Storm N, McKay LGA, Downs SN, Johnson RI, Birru D et al. Rapid and complete inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by ultraviolet-C irradiation. Sci Rep 2020; 10:22421 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Inagaki H, Saito A, Sugiyama H, Okabayashi T, Fujimoto S. Rapid inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 with deep-UV LED irradiation. Emerg Microbes Infect 2020; 9:1744–1747 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Asahi Kasei America LEDs that stop 99% of Covid in seconds; 2020 https://www.ak-america.com/inaction/cis-klaran-covid-99.html22 January 2021
  8. Bush S. Stanley Electric tests UV-C leds against Covid-19; 2020 https://www.electronicsweekly.com/blogs/led-luminaries/stanley-electric-tests-uv-c-leds-covid-19-2020-10/2 January 2021
  9. Nichia Nichia’s Latest UV-C LED disinfection efficacy proven to combat virusDisinfection Efficacy Proven to Combat Viruses; 2021 https://www.ledsmagazine.com/directory/led-packages/uv-ir-leds/press-release/14196184/nichia-corp-nichias-latest-uvc-led-disinfection-efficacy-proven-to-combat-viruses10 February 2021
  10. Ontario HQ. Portable ultraviolet light surface-disinfecting devices for prevention of hospital-acquired infections: a health technology assessment. Ont Health Technol Assess Ser 2018; 18:1–73
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Rattanakul S, Oguma K. Inactivation kinetics and efficiencies of UV-LEDs against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella pneumophila, and surrogate microorganisms. Water Res 2018; 130:31–37 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide Programs Antimicrobial Testing Methods & Procedures: MB-31-03. US Environmental Protection Agency; 2014 https://WwwEpaGov/Pesticide-Analytical-Methods/Antimicrobial-Testing-Methods-Procedures-Mb-31-03
  13. Harcourt J, Tamin A, Lu X, Kamili S, Sakthivel SK et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 from patient with coronavirus disease, United States. Emerg Infect Dis 2020; 26:1266–1273 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Honko AN, Storm N, Bean DJ, Henao Vasquez J, Downs SN et al. rapid quantification and neutralization assays for novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 using avicel RC-591 semi-solid overlay. Reprints 2020 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Gerchman Y, Mamane H, Friedman N, Mandelboim M. UV-LED disinfection of Coronavirus: Wavelength effect. J Photochem Photobiol B 2020; 212:112044 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Nishisaka-Nonaka R, Mawatari K, Yamamoto T, Kojima M, Shimohata T et al. Irradiation by ultraviolet light-emitting diodes inactivates influenza A viruses by inhibiting replication and transcription of viral RNA in host cells. J Photochem Photobiol B 2018; 189:193–200 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Levetin E, Shaughnessy R, Rogers CA, Scheir R. Effectiveness of germicidal uv radiation for reducing fungal contamination within air-handling units. Appl Environ Microbiol 2001; 67:3712–3715 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Minamikawa T, Koma T, Suzuki A, Mizuno T, Nagamatsu K et al. Quantitative evaluation of SARS-COV-2 inactivation using a deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode. Sci Rep 2021; 11:5070 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/acmi/10.1099/acmi.0.000276
Loading
/content/journal/acmi/10.1099/acmi.0.000276
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error