1887

Abstract

Benzalkonium chloride (BC) is a commonly used disinfectant and preservative. This study describes changes in expression level at the transcriptomic and proteomic level for K-12 gradually adapted to a tolerance level to BC of 7–8 times the initial MIC. Results from DNA arrays and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for global gene and protein expression studies were confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR. Peptide mass fingerprinting by MALDI-TOF MS was used to identify differentially expressed proteins. Changes in expression level in adapted cells were shown for porins, drug transporters, glycolytic enzymes, ribosomal subunits and several genes and proteins involved in protection against oxidative stress and antibiotics. Adapted strains showed increased tolerance to several antibiotics. In conclusion, K-12 adapted to higher tolerance to BC acquired several general resistance mechanisms, including responses normally related to the multiple antibiotic resistance (Mar) regulon and protection against oxidative stress. The results revealed that BC treatment might result in superoxide stress in .

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2007-04-01
2019-10-23
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vol. , part 4, pp. 935 - 946

List of the 105 genes for which the statistical model term showed significance ( <0.05). Significance for this interaction indicates that there is some difference in genetic expression between 50 μg ml and no BC in the medium, but this effect varied between adapted strains (A1, A2, A3) and no significant main effect for was shown. [Excel file](23 kb)



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