1887

Abstract

Archaea possess a broader range of cell envelope structural formats than eubacteria and their cell walls do not contain peptidoglycan. Some archaea have only a single S-layer as their cell wall (e.g. and ), whereas others have multiple layers (e.g. ). Sometimes there can also be a high proportion of tetraether lipids in membranes to make the envelope more resilient to environmental stress (e.g. and grown at 70 °C). Since the Gram reaction depends on both the structural format and the chemical composition of the cell envelope of eubacteria, it was important to determine if the same is true for archaea. and chosen because of their different envelope formats and chemistries, were subjected to a Gram stain that can be used for transmission electron microscopy. In this staining regimen, the iodine is replaced by potassium trichloro(η-ethylene)platinate(II) as the mordant, and the platinum of the new compound is the electron-scattering agent for electron microscopy. Of all these archaea, only stained Gram-positive since its pseudomurein wall remained intact; the platinum compound formed large electron-dense aggregates with the crystal violet that were located in the vicinity of the cell wall and the plasma membrane. All but the terminal filament cells of stained Gram-negative because the limiting porosity of its external sheath was so small that the Gram reagents could not enter the cells. The terminal cells of filaments stained Gram-positive because the staining reagents gained entry through the terminal plugs. All other archaea stained Gram-negative because their cell walls were so disrupted during staining that the crystal violet-platinum complex could not be retained by the cells. was grown at both 50 °C and 70 °C so that the tetraether lipids in its plasma membrane could be increased from 20% (50 °C) to 45% (70 °C) of the total lipids; in both cases the cells stained Gram-negative.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/13500872-142-10-2887
1996-10-01
2021-08-02
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/142/10/mic-142-10-2887.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/13500872-142-10-2887&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Aldrich H.C., Robinson R.W., Williams D.S. 1986; Ultrastructure of Methanosarcina magei . Syst Appl Microbiol 7:314–319
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Beveridge T.J. 1981; Ultrastructure, chemistry, and function of the bacterial cell wall.. Int Rev Cytol 72:229–317
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Beveridge T.J. 1988; The bacterial surface: general considerations towards design and function. Can J Microbiol 34:363–372
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Beveridge T.J. 1990; Mechanism of Gram variability in select bacteria. J Bacteriol 172:1609–1620
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Beveridge T.J., Davies J.A. 1983; Cellular response of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli to the Gram stain. J Bacteriol 156:846–858
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Beveridge T.J., Graham LL. 1991; Surface layers of bacteria. Microbiol Rev 55:684–705
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Beveridge T.J., Stewart M., Doyle R.J., Sprott G.D. 1985; Unusual stability of the Methanospirillum hungatei sheath. J Bacteriol 162:728–737
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Beveridge T.J., Harris B.J., Sprott G.D. 1987; Septation and filament splitting in Methanospirillum hungatei. Can . J Microbiol 33:725–732
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Beveridge T.J., Sprott G.D., Whippey P. 1991; Ultrastructure, inferred porosity, and Gram staining character of Methanospirillum hungatei filament termini describe a unique cell permeability for this archaeobacterium. J Bacteriol 173:130–140
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Beveridge T.J., Choquet C.C., Patel G.B., Sprott G.D. 1993; Freeze-fracture planes in methanogen membranes correlate with the content of tetraether lipids. J Bacteriol 175:1191–1197
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Breuil C., Patel G. B. 1980; Composition of Methanospirillum hungatei GP1 during growth on different media. Can J Microbiol 26:577–582
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Brock T.D., Brock K.M., Belly R.T., Weiss R.L. 1972; Sulfolobus- a new genus of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria living at low pH and high temperature. Arch Mikrobiol 84:54–68
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Chock P.B., Halpern J., Paulik F. E. 1973; Potassium tri- chloro(ethylene)platinate(II) (Zeisse’s salt). Inorg Synth 14:90–92
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Choquet C.G., Patel G.B., Beveridge T.J., Sprott G.D. 1994; Stability of pressure-extruded liposomes made from archaeo- bacterial ether lipids. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 41:375–384
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Davies J.A., Anderson G.K., Beveridge T.J., Clark H.C. 1983; Chemical mechanism of the Gram stain and synthesis of a new electron-opaque marker for electron microscopy which replaces the mordant of the stain. J Bacteriol 156:837–845
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Deatherage J.F., Taylor K.A., Amos L.A. 1983; Threedimensional arrangement of cell wall protein of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius . J Mol Biol 167:823–852
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Ferrante G., Richards J.C., Sprott G.D. 1990; Structures of polar lipids from the thermophilic deep-sea archaeobacterium Methanococcus jannaschii . Biochem Cell Biol 68:274–283
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Firtel M., Southam G., Harauz G., Beveridge T.J. 1993; Characterization of the cell wall of the sheathed methanogen Methanospirillum hungatei GP1 as an S Layer. J Bacteriol 23:7550–7560
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Firtel M., Southam G., Harauz G., Beveridge T.J. 1994; The organization of the paracrystalline multilayered spacer plugs of Methanospirillum hungatei . J Structural Biol 112:160–171
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Graham L.L., Beveridge T.J. 1994; Structural differentiation of the Bacillus subtilis cell wall. J Bacteriol 176:1413–1421
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Kandler O., König H. 1985; Cell envelopes of archaebacteria. In The Bacteria VIII pp. 413–457 Edited by Woese C. R., Wolfe R. S. New York: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  22. König H. 1988; Archaeobacterial cell envelopes. Can J Microbiol 34:395–406
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Langworthy T.A. 1985; Lipids of archaebacteria. In The Bacteria VIII pp. 459–497 Edited by Woese C. R., Wolfe R. S. New York: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  24. de Macario E. C., Macario A. J. L., Mok T., Beveridge T.J. 1993; Immunochemistry and localization of the enzyme dis- aggregatase in Methanosarcina mazei . J Bacteriol 175:3115–3120
    [Google Scholar]
  25. May H. D., Patel P. S., Ferry J. G. 1988; Effect of Molybdenum and tungsten on synthesis and composition of formate dehydrogenase in Methanobacterium formicicum . J Bacteriol 170:3384–3389
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Messner P., Sleytr U.B. 1992; Crystalline bacterial surface layers. Adv Microb Physiol 33:213–275
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Michel H., Neugebauer D.-C., Oesterheld D. 1980; The 2-d crystalline cell wall of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius: structure, solubilization, and reassembly. In Electron Microscopy at Molecular Dimensions pp. 27–35 Edited by Baumeister W., Vogell W. Berlin & New York: Springer-Verlag;
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Sprott G.D., Beveridge T.J. 1993; Microscopy. In Methano- genesis: Ecology, Physiology, Biochemistry and Genetics pp. 81–127 Edited by Ferry J. G. New York: Chapman & Hall;
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Sprott G.D., Shaw K.M., Jarrell K.F. 1983; Isolation and chemical composition of the cytoplasmic membrane of the archae- bacterium Methanospirillum hungatei . J Biol Chem 258:4026–4031
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Sprott G.D., Meloche M., Richards J. C. 1991; Proportions of diether, macrocyclic diether and tetraether lipids in Methanococcus jannaschii grown at different temperatures. J Bacteriol 173:3907–3910
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Southam G., Beveridge T.J. 1992; Characterization of a novel, phenol-soluble group of polypeptides which convey rigidity to the sheath of Methanospirillum hungatei GP1. J Bacteriol 174:935–946
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Stewart M., Beveridge T.J., Sprott G.D. 1985; Crystalline order to high resolution in the sheath of Methanospirillum hungatei: a cross-beta structure. J Mol Biol 183:509–515
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Weiss L.R. 1974; Subunit cell wall of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius . J Bacteriol 118:275–284
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Xu W., Mulhern P. J., Blackford B. L., Jericho M. H., Beveridge T. J. 1996; Modelling and measuring the elastic properties of an archaeal surface, the sheath of Methanospirillum hungatei, and the implication for methane production. J Bacteriol 178:3106–3112
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Xun L, Boone D.R. 1990; Isolation and characterization of disaggregatase from Methanosarcina ma-gei LYC. Appl Environ Microbiol 56:3693–3698
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/13500872-142-10-2887
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/13500872-142-10-2887
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error