1887

Abstract

SUMMARY: Raspberry leaves contain a substance which prevents the infection of plants by viruses when it is mixed with the inoculum. It is lost on dialysis, precipitated by nicotine or added protein, unaffected by boiling or freezing, and is probably a phenolic tanning agent. Extracts from peach or apple leaves contain less of such substances than do those from leaves of plum, cherry, raspberry or strawberry. The degree to which virus infection is inhibited by tanning substances from raspberry or other sources depends on the virus and not on the species of test plant. Raspberry tannin and tannic acid combine irreversibly with some viruses but with others the combination is readily reversed by dilution or increase in pH value. With potato ring necrosis, tobacco mosaic and tobacco necrosis viruses, there seems to be a fixed ratio between the amount of virus and the amount of tannin needed to decrease infectivity by a fixed proportion. The infectivity of extracts made from raspberry leaves containing raspberry ring spot or beet ring spot viruses varied with the concentration of tannin present and the pH value. The amount of virus sedimented by centrifuging such extracts at low speed decreased with increase of pH value. Extracts made with 2·5 % nicotine in water were usually more infective than those made with alumina or phosphate buffer (pH 8), and much more infective than those made with water. Both viruses are precipitated by acetone or ammonium sulphate from extracts of infected raspberry leaves made with nicotine or alumina; beet ring spot virus was detected serologically in such preparations from infected raspberry leaves.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-20-1-113
1959-02-01
2021-08-03
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/20/1/mic-20-1-113.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-20-1-113&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bawden F.C. 1956; Inhibitors and plant viruses. Advanc. Virus Res. 2:32
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bawden F. C., Kleczkowski A. 1945; Protein precipitation and virus inactivation by extracts of strawberry plants. J. Pomol. 21:2
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Cadman C.H. 1956; Studies on the etiology and mode of spread of Scottish raspberry leaf-curl disease. J. hort. Sci. 31:111
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Cadman C.H. 1958; A ring necrosis virus of potato. Proc. 3rd Conference on potato virus diseases, Wageningen p. 168
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Craig L.C. 1944; Identification of small amounts of organic compounds by distribution studies. II. Separation by counter-current distribution. . J. biol. Chem. 155:519
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Gustavson K.H. 1949; Some protein-chemical aspects of tanning processes. Advanc. Prot. Chem. 5:354
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Harrison B.D. 1956; Soil transmission of Scottish raspberry leaf-curl disease. Nature; Lond.: 178553
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Harrison B.D. 1957; Studies on the host range, properties and mode of transmission of beet ring spot virus. Ann. appl. Biol. 45:462
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Harrison B.D. 1958; Raspberry yellow dwarf-a solid-born virus. Ann. appl. Biol. 46:221
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Harrison B.D. 1959; Further studies on raspberry ring spot and tomato black ring, soil-borne viruses that affect raspberry. Ann. appl.Biol in the Press
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Hathway D. E. 1958a; An approach to the study of vegetable tannins by the oxidation of plant phenolics. J. Soc. Leath. Tr. Chem. 42:108
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Hathway D. E. 1958b; Oak-bark tannins. Biochem. J. 70:34
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Hillis W.E., Swain T. 1957; Influence of illumination on the synthesis of leuco-anthocyanins in leaves. Nature; Lond.: 179586
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Hirth L. 1951; Contribution à I’ étude de I’ inhibition du virus de la mosaique du tabac par diverses substances tanniques. Ann. Inst. Pasteur 80:458
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Holden M. 1957; An investigation on polyphenolic compounds of the cacao leaf in connexion with a chemical method for detecting virus infection. J. Sci. Fd Agric.10,553
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Kassanis B., Kleczkowski A. 1948; The isolation and some properties of a virus-inhibiting protein from Phytolacca esculenta. . J. gen. Microbiol. 2:143
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Mcnair J.B. 1930; Gum, tannin and resin in relation to specificity, environment and function. Amer. J. Bot. 17:187
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Reid W.W. 1956; The polyphenols and polyphenolase of tobacco, in Chemistry of Vegetable Tannins. . Symp. Soc. Leath. Tr. Chem. p. 75
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Thornberry H.H. 1935; Effect of tannic acid on the infectivity of tobacco mosaic virus. Phytopathology 25:931
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Thresh J.M. 1956; Some effects of tannic acid and of leaf extracts which contain tannins on the infectivity of tobacco mosaic and tobacco necrosis viruses. Ann. appl. Biol. 44:608
    [Google Scholar]
  21. White T. 1956; The chemical principles of vegetable tannage. J. Soc. Leath. Tr. Chem. 40:78
    [Google Scholar]
  22. White T. 1957; Tannins-their occurrence and significance. J. Sci. Fd Agric.7377
    [Google Scholar]
  23. White T., Kirby K.S., Knowles E. 1952; Tannins. IV. The complexity of tannin extract composition. J. Soc. Leath. Tr. Chem. 36:148
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-20-1-113
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-20-1-113
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error