1887

Abstract

A mutation was isolated in the gene , which appears to specify the outer-membrane receptor for the siderophore vicibactin. The mutant was defective in iron uptake and accumulated the siderophore vicibactin in the extracellular medium. Expression of was regulated by Fe, transcription being higher in iron-depleted cells. Transcription of was independent of a functional copy of , a neighbouring gene that specifies a putative ECF σ factor of RNA polymerase and which is involved in siderophore production in . Mutations in did not detectably affect symbiotic N fixation on peas. An :: fusion was expressed by bacteria in the meristematic zone of pea nodules but not in mature bacteroids. Some other strains of also contain a pseudogene version of . The sequences of some of these and the ‘real’ genes were determined.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-146-4-829
2000-04-01
2020-04-02
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/146/4/1460829a.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-146-4-829&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Barsomonian G. D., Urzainqui A., Lohman K., Walker G. C.. 1992; Rhizobium meliloti mutants unable to synthesize anthranilate display a novel symbiotic phenotype. J Bacteriol174:4416–4426
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Beringer J. E.. 1974; R factor transfer in Rhizobium leguminosarum. J Gen Microbiol84:188–198[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Beynon J. L., Beringer J. E., Johnston A. W. B.. 1980; Plasmids and host-range in Rhizobium leguminosarum and Rhizobium phaseoli. J Gen Microbiol120:421–429
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Braun V., Hantke K., Koster W.. 1998; Bacterial iron transport: mechanisms, genetics, and regulation. Metal Ions Biol Syst35:67–145
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Buchanan-Wollaston A. V.. 1979; Generalised transduction in Rhizobium leguminosarum. J Gen Microbiol112:135–142[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Carson K. C., Glenn A. R., Dilworth M. J.. 1994; Specificity of siderophore-mediated transport of iron in rhizobia. Arch Microbiol161:333–339[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Crosa J. H.. 1997; Signal transduction and transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of iron-regulated genes in bacteria. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev61:319–341
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Delgado M. J., Yeoman K. H., Wu G., Vargas C., Davies A. E., Poole R. K., Johnston A. W. B., Downie J. A.. 1995; Characterisation of the cycHJKL genes involved in cytochrome c biogenesis and symbiotic nitrogen fixation in Rhizobium leguminosarum. J Bacteriol177:4927–4934
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Dilworth M. J., Carson K. C., Giles R. G. F., Byrne L. T., Glenn A. R.. 1998; Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae produces a novel cyclic trihydroxamate siderophore, vicibactin. Microbiology144:781–791[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Downie J. A., Hombrecher G., Ma Q. S., Knight C. D., Wells B., Johnston A. W. B.. 1983; Cloned nodulation genes of Rhizobium leguminosarum determine host-range specificity. Mol Gen Genet190:359–365[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Fabiano E., Gill P. R., Noya F., Bagnasco P., Delafuente L., Arias A.. 1995; Siderophore-mediated iron transport iron acquisition mutants in Rhizobium meliloti 242 and its effect on the nodulation kinetics of alfalfa nodules. Symbiosis19:197–211
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Fett J. P., LeVier K., Guerinot M. L.. 1998; Soil microorganisms and iron uptake by higher plants. Metal Ions Biol Syst35:188–214
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Figurski D. H., Helinski D. R.. 1979; Replication of an origin-containing derivative of plasmid RK2 dependent on a plasmid function provided in trans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA76:1648–1652[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Guerinot M. L., Meidl E. J., Plessner O.. 1990; Citrate as a siderophore in Bradyrhizobium japonicum. J Bacteriol172:3298–3303
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Jefferson R. A., Kavanagh T. A., Bevan M. W.. 1987; Gus fusions – β-glucuronidase as a sensitive and versatile gene fusion marker in higher plants. EMBO J6:3901–3907
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Keen N. T., Tamaki S., Kobayashi D., Trollinger D.. 1988; Improved broad-host range plasmids for DNA cloning in Gram-negative bacteria. Gene70:191–197[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Killman H., Braun V.. 1992; An aspartate deletion mutation defines a binding-site of the multifunctional FhuA outer-membrane receptor of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol174:3479–3486
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Killman H., Videnov G., Jung G., Schwarz H., Braun V.. 1995; Identification of receptor-binding sites by competitive peptide mapping – phage-T1, phage-T5, and phage-ϕ80 and colicin-M bind to the gating loop of FhuA. J Bacteriol177:694–698
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Lamb J. W., Hombrecher G., Johnston A. W. B.. 1982; Plasmid-determined nodulation and nitrogen-fixation abilities in Rhizobium phaseoli. Mol Gen Genet186:449–452[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Latchford J. W., Borthakur D., Johnston A. W. B.. 1991; The products of the Rhizobium genes psi and pss which affect exopolysaccharide production are associated with the bacterial cell surface. Mol Microbiol5:2107–2114[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. LeVier K., Guerinot M. L.. 1996; The Bradyrhizobium japonicum fegA gene encodes an iron-regulated outer-membrane protein with similarity to hydroxamate-type siderophore receptors. J Bacteriol178:7265–7275
    [Google Scholar]
  22. LeVier K., Day D. A., Guerinot M. L.. 1996; Iron uptake by symbiosomes from soybean root-nodules. Plant Physiol111:893–900
    [Google Scholar]
  23. deLuca N. G., Wexler M., Pereira M. J., Yeoman K. H., Johnston A. W. B.. 1998; Is the fur gene of Rhizobium leguminosarum essential?. FEMS Microbiol Lett168:288–295
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Marie C., Barnie M.-A., Downie J. A.. 1992; Rhizobium leguminosarum has two glucosamine synthases, GlmS and NodM, required for nodulation and development of nitrogen-fixing nodules. Mol Microbiol6:843–851[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Messing J., Crea R., Seeburg P. H.. 1983; A system for shotgun DNA sequencing. Nucleic Acids Res9:309–314
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Moreau S., Day D. A., Puppo A.. 1998; Ferrous iron is transported across the peribacteroid membrane of soybean nodules. Planta207:83–87[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Persmark M., Pittman P., Buyer J. S., Schwyn B., Gill P. R., Neilands J. B.. 1993; Isolation and structure of rhizobactin 1021, a siderophore from alfalfa symbiont Rhizobium meliloti 1021. J Am Chem Soc115:3950–3956[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Postle K.. 1999; Active transport by customized β-barrels. Nature Struct Biol6:3–6[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Reigh G., O’Connell M.. 1993; Siderophore-mediated iron transport correlates with the presence of specific iron-regulated proteins in the outer membrane of Rhizobium meliloti. J Bacteriol175:94–102
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Rigottier-Gois L., Turner S. L., Young J. P. W., Armarger N.. 1998; Distribution of repC plasmid-replication sequences among plasmids and isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae from field populations. Microbiology144:771–778[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Rossen L., Shearman C. A., Johnston A. W. B., Downie J. A.. 1985; The nodD gene of Rhizobium leguminosarum is autoregulatory and in the presence of plant root exudate induces the nodABC genes. EMBO J4:3369–3374
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Roy N., Bhattacharyya P., Chakrabartty P. K.. 1994; Iron acquisition during growth in an iron deficient medium by Rhizobium sp. isolated from Cicer arietinum. Microbiology140:2811–2820[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Schlaman H. R. M., Horvath B., Vijgenboom E., Okker R. J. H., Lugtenberg B. J. J.. 1991; Suppression of nodulation gene expression in bacteroids of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae. J Bacteriol173:4277–4287
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Schwyn B., Neilands J. B.. 1987; Universal chemical assay for the detection and determination of siderophores. Anal Biochem160:47–56[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Sharma S. B., Signer E. R.. 1990; Temporal and spatial regulation of the symbiotic genes of Rhizobium meliloti in planta revealed by transposon Tn5-gusA. Genes Dev4:344–356[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Spaink H. P., Okker R. J. H., Wijffelman C. A., Pees E., Lugtenberg B. J. J.. 1987; Promoters in the nodulation region of the Rhizobium leguminosarum symbiotic plasmid pRL1JI. Plant Mol Biol9:27–39[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Stevens J. B., Carter R. A., Hussain H., Carson K. C., Dilworth M. J., Johnston A. W. B.. 1999; The fhu genes of Rhizobium leguminosarum specifying siderophore uptake proteins: fhuCDB are adjacent to a pseudogene version of fhuA. Microbiology145:593–601[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Tate R., Cermola M., Riccio A., Iaccarino M., Merrick M., Favre R., Patriarca E. J.. 1999; Ectopic expression of the Rhizobium etli amtB gene affects the symbiosome differentiation process and nodule development. Mol Plant–Microbe Interact12:515–525[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Wilson K. J., Hughes S. G., Jefferson R. A.. 1992; The Escherichia coli gus operon: introduction and expression of the gus operon in E. coli and the occurrence and use of GUS in other bacteria. In Gus Protocols: Using the GUS Gene as a Reporter of Gene Expression pp.7–22Edited by Gallagher S. R.. New York: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Wood W. B.. 1966; Host specificity of DNA produced by Escherichia coli; bacterial mutations affecting the restriction and modification of DNA. Mol Biol16:118–133[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Yeoman K. H., Delgado M. J., Wexler M., Downie J. A., Johnston A. W. B.. 1997; High affinity iron acquisition in Rhizobium leguminosarum requires the cycHJKL operon and the feuPQ gene products which belong to the family of two-component regulators. Microbiology143:127–134[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Yeoman K. H., May A. G., DeLuca N. G., Stuckey D. B., Johnston A. W. B.. 1999; A putative ECF σ factor gene, rpoI, regulates siderophore production in Rhizobium leguminosarum. Mol Plant–Microbe Interact12:994–999[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-146-4-829
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-146-4-829
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error