1887

Abstract

The effect of medium composition on the production of four types of extracellular enzymes by was investigated. The nuclease, RNAase, alkaline phosphatase and proteases were produced in good yield after growth in tryptone broth. Much higher yields of the proteases, but low yields of the other three enzymes, were obtained using a skim milk/yeast extract or a chemically defined medium. The addition of NH , HPO , ribonucleosides, Mg or Mn to tryptone broth reduced the production of some of the enzymes rather specifically. Of 12 monovalent and divalent metal ions tested, Mg and Mn had the greatest effect. Mg at concentrations greater than about 0.01 mM inhibited the production of the nuclease, RNAase and the phosphatase but increased the proteases two- to threefold. Mn at concentrations greater than about 0.01 mM inhibited production of the three enzymes more severely but did not stimulate protease synthesis. The extracellular enzymes produced with or without added Mg or Mn were analysed by PAGE and the activities associated with the cells and a shock fluid were determined. In addition, the effect of adding Mg or Mn to a growing, extracellular enzyme-producing culture was determined. The results suggest that the nuclease, RNAase and phosphatase are produced by a different mechanism than the proteases and that the metal ions interfere specifically with their production rather than with their release or by causing inhibition.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-129-7-2293
1983-07-01
2021-08-04
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/129/7/mic-129-7-2293.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-129-7-2293&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Christensen P., Cook F. D. 1978; Lysobacter, a new genus of non-fruiting gliding bacteria with a high base ratio. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 28:367–393
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Difco Manual 1953; Difco manual of dehydrated culture media and reagents for microbiological and clinical laboratory procedures. , 9th edn. Detroit, Michigan: Difco Laboratories;
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Glenn A. R. 1976; Production of extracellular proteins by bacteria. Annual Review of Microbiology 30:41–62
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Guntermann U., Tan I., Hüttermann A. 1975; Induction of α-glucosidase and synthesis during the cell cycle of Myxobacter AL-1. Journal of Bacteriology 124:86–91
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Hanlon G. W., Hodges N. A., Russell A. D. 1982; The influence of glucose, ammonium and magnesium availability on the production of protease and bacitracin by Bacillus licheniformis. Journal of General Microbiology 128:845–851
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Hedges A., Wolfe R. S. 1974; Extracellular enzyme from Myxobacter AL-1 that exhibits both β-1,4-glucanase and chitosanase activities. Journal of Bacteriology 120:844–853
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Jackson R. L., Matsueda G. R. 1970; Myxobacter AL-1 protease. Methods in Enzymology 19:591–599
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Jasper P., Silver S. 1977; Magnesium transport in microorganisms. In Microorganisms and Minerals pp. 7–47 Weinberg E. D. Edited by New York: Marcel Dekker;
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Kreil G. 1981; Transfer of proteins across membranes. Annual Review of Biochemistry 50:317–348
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Maizel J. V.JR 1971; Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of viral proteins. Methods in Virology 5:179–246
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Neu H. C., Heppel L. A. 1965; The release of enzymes from Escherichia coli by osmotic shock and during the formation of spheroplasts. Journal of Biological Chemistry 240:3685–3692
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Osborn M. J. 1979; Biosynthesis and assembly of the lipopolysaccharide of the outer membrane. In Bacterial Outer Membranes: Biogenesis and Functions pp. 15–34 Inouye M. Edited by New York: Wiley;
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Priest F. G. 1977; Extracellular enzyme synthesis in the genus Bacillus. Bacteriological Reviews 41:711–753
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Reichenbach H. 1981; Taxonomy of the gliding bacteria. Annual Review of Microbiology 35:339–364
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Sanders R. L., May B. K. 1975; Evidence for extrusion of unfolded extracellular enzyme polypeptide chains through membranes of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Journal of Bacteriology 123:806–814
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Silver S., Jasper P. 1977; Manganese transport in microorganisms. In Microorganisms and Minerals pp. 105–159 Weinberg E. D. Edited by New York: Marcel Dekker;
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Von Tigerstrom R. G. 1980; Extracellular nucleases of Lysobacter enzymogenes: production of the enzymes and purification and characterization of an endonuclease. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 26:1029–1037
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Von Tigerstrom R. G. 1981; Extracellular nucleases of Lysobacter enzymogenes: purification and characterization of a ribonuclease. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 27:1080–1086
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Weinberg E. D. 1977; Mineral element control of microbial secondary metabolism. In Microorganisms and Minerals pp. 289–316 Weinberg E. D. Edited by New York: Marcel Dekker;
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Whitaker D. R. 1970; The α-lytic protease of a myxobacterium. Methods in Enzymology 19:599–613
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Williams R. J. P. 1982; Free manganese (II) and iron (II) cations act as intracellular cell controls. FEES Letters 140:3–10
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-129-7-2293
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-129-7-2293
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error