1887

Abstract

Two-component regulatory systems (TCSs) are a major mechanism used by bacteria to sense and respond to their environments. Many of the same TCSs are used by biologically diverse organisms with different regulatory needs, suggesting that the functions of TCS must evolve. To explore this topic, we analysed the amino acid sequence divergence patterns of a large set of broadly conserved TCS across different branches of , a family of Gram-negative bacteria that includes biomedically important genera such as , , and others. Our analysis revealed trends in how TCS sequences change across different proteins or functional domains of the TCS, and across different lineages. Based on these trends, we identified individual TCS that exhibit atypical evolutionary patterns. We observed that the relative extent to which the sequence of a given TCS varies across different lineages is generally well conserved, unveiling a hierarchy of TCS sequence conservation with EnvZ/OmpR as the most conserved TCS. We provide evidence that, for the most divergent of the TCS analysed, PmrA/PmrB, different alleles were horizontally acquired by different branches of this family, and that different PmrA/PmrB sequence variants have highly divergent signal-sensing domains. Collectively, this study sheds light on how TCS evolve, and serves as a compendium for how the sequences of the TCS in this family have diverged over the course of evolution.

Funding
This study was supported by the:
  • Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (Award RGPIN-2020-03964)
    • Principle Award Recipient: CaseyC. Fowler
  • This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. This article was made open access via a Publish and Read agreement between the Microbiology Society and the corresponding author’s institution.
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2024-03-19
2024-04-22
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