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Abstract

Extra-intestinal pathogenic (ExPEC) ST1193, a globally emergent fluoroquinolone-resistant clone, has become an important cause of bloodstream infections (BSIs) associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have reported the emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant ExPEC ST1193 in Vietnam; however, limited data exist regarding the genetic structure, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants and transmission dynamics of this pandemic clone. Here, we performed genomic and phylogenetic analyses of 46 ST1193 isolates obtained from BSIs and healthy individuals in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, to investigate the pathogen population structure, molecular mechanisms of AMR and potential transmission patterns. We further examined the phylogenetic structure of ST1193 isolates in a global context. We found that the endemic ST1193 population was heterogeneous and highly dynamic, largely driven by multiple strain importations. Several well-supported phylogenetic clusters (C1–C6) were identified and associated with distinct variants, including (C1–C3, C5), (C4) and (C6). Most ST1193 isolates were multidrug-resistant and carried an extensive array of AMR genes. ST1193 isolates also exhibited the ability to acquire further resistance while circulating in Vietnam. There were phylogenetic links between ST1193 isolates from BSIs and healthy individuals, suggesting these organisms may both establish long-term colonization in the human intestinal tract and induce infections. Our study uncovers factors shaping the population structure and transmission dynamics of multidrug-resistant ST1193 in Vietnam, and highlights the urgent need for local One Health genomic surveillance to capture new emerging ExPEC clones and to better understand the origins and transmission patterns of these pathogens.

Funding
This study was supported by the:
  • Wellcome Trust (Award 215515/Z/19/Z)
    • Principle Award Recipient: StephenBaker
  • Oak Foundation (Award OCAY-15-547)
    • Principle Award Recipient: DuyThanh Pham
  • This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
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2021-12-14
2022-01-28
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