1887

Abstract

Arsenic is highly toxic element to all forms of life and is a major environmental contaminant. Understanding acquisition, detoxification and adaptation mechanisms in bacteria that are associated with the host in arsenic-rich conditions can provide novel insights into the evolutionary dynamics of host–microbe–environment interactions. In the present study, we have investigated an arsenic-resistance mechanism acquired during the evolution of a particular lineage in the population of pv. , which is a serious plant pathogen infecting rice. Our study revealed the horizontal acquisition of a novel chromosomal 12 kb cassette in pv. IXO1088 that confers high resistance to arsenate/arsenite. The cassette comprises several genes that constitute an operon induced in the presence of arsenate/arsenite. Transfer of the cloned cassette to pv. BXO512, which lacks the cassette, confers an arsenic-resistance phenotype. Furthermore, the transcriptional response of pv. IXO1088 under arsenate/arsenite exposure was analysed using RNA sequencing. Arsenic detoxification and efflux, oxidative stress, iron acquisition/storage, and damage repair are the main cellular responses to arsenic exposure. Our investigation has provided insights into the existence of a novel detoxification and adaptation mechanism within the pv. population to deal with high-arsenic conditions outside the rice plant.

Funding
This study was supported by the:
  • Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India (Award OLP-148 and MLP0020)
    • Principle Award Recipient: B. PatilPrabhu
  • This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License.
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2021-07-13
2021-10-18
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