1887

Abstract

Multiply antibiotic-resistant infections are a global public health concern and accurate tracking of the spread of specific lineages is needed. Variation in the composition and structure of capsular polysaccharide (CPS), a critical determinant of virulence and phage susceptibility, makes it an attractive epidemiological marker. The outer core (OC) of lipooligosaccharide also exhibits variation. To take better advantage of the untapped information available in whole genome sequences, we have created a curated reference database of 92 publicly available gene clusters at the locus encoding proteins responsible for biosynthesis and export of CPS (K locus), and a second database for 12 gene clusters at the locus for outer core biosynthesis (OC locus). Each entry has been assigned a unique KL or OCL number, and is fully annotated using a simple, transparent and standardized nomenclature. These databases are compatible with , a tool for typing of bacterial surface polysaccharide loci, and their utility was validated using (a) >630 assembled draft genomes for which the KL and OCL regions had been previously typed manually, and (b) 3386 genome assemblies downloaded from NCBI. Among the previously typed genomes, was able to confidently assign KL and OCL types with 100 % accuracy. Among the genomes retrieved from NCBI, detected known KL and OCL in 87 and 90 % of genomes, respectively, indicating that the majority of common KL and OCL types are captured within the databases; 13 of the 92 KL in the database were not detected in any publicly available whole genome assembly. The failure to assign a KL or OCL type may indicate incomplete or poor-quality genomes. However, further novel variants may remain to be documented. Combining outputs with multilocus sequence typing (Institut Pasteur scheme) revealed multiple KL and OCL types in collections of a single sequence type (ST) representing each of the two predominant globally distributed clones, ST1 of GC1 and ST2 of GC2, and in collections of other clones comprising >20 isolates each (ST10, ST25, and ST140), indicating extensive within-clone replacement of these loci. The databases are available at https://github.com/katholt/Kaptive and will be updated as further locus types become available.

Funding
This study was supported by the:
  • Johanna J Kenyon , Australian Research Council , (Award DE180101563)
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2020-03-02
2020-06-03
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