1887

Abstract

Despite a high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in Brazil and other countries in South America, very little is known about the distribution of genovars. In this study, we genotyped strains from urine or endocervical specimens collected from 163 -positive female and male youths, and female adults, residing in two different regions of Brazil, the city of Goiânia located in the central part of Brazil, and the city of Vitória in the south-east region. strains were genotyped by amplifying and sequencing the gene encoding the chlamydial major outer-membrane protein, which is genovar specific. We found nine different genovars: E (39.3 %), F (16.6 %), D (15.9 %), I (8.6 %), J (7.4 %), G (4.9 %), K (3.1 %), H (2.4 %) and B (1.8 %). The distribution of the genovars in the two regions of Brazil was similar, and there was no statistically significant association of serovars with age, gender, number of sexual partners or clinical symptoms. The overall distribution of genovars in Brazil appears similar to that found in other regions of the world, where E, D and F are the most common. This supports the notion that, during the last few decades, the overall distribution of genovars throughout the world has been relatively stable.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.026476-0
2011-04-01
2020-01-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/60/4/472.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.026476-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Araújo, R. S., Guimarães, E. M., Alves, M. F., Sakurai, E., Domingos, L. T., Fioravante, F. C. & Machado, A. C. ( 2006; ). Prevalence and risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in adolescent females and young women in central Brazil. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 25, 397–400.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bandea, C. I., Kubota, K., Brown, T. M., Kilmarx, P. H., Bhullar, V., Yanpaisarn, S., Chaisilwattana, P., Siriwasin, W. & Black, C. M. ( 2001; ). Typing of Chlamydia trachomatis strains from urine samples by amplification and sequencing the major outer membrane protein gene (omp1). Sex Transm Infect 77, 419–422.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bandea, C. I., Debattista, J., Joseph, K., Igietseme, J., Timms, P. & Black, C. M. ( 2008; ). Chlamydia trachomatis serovars among strains isolated from members of rural indigenous communities and urban populations in Australia. J Clin Microbiol 46, 355–356.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Barcelos, M. R., Vargas, P. R., Baroni, C. & Miranda, A. E. ( 2008; ). Genital infections in women attending a primary unit of health: prevalence and risk behaviors. Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet 30, 349–354.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Batteiger, B. E., Lennington, W., Newhall, W. J., Katz, B. P., Morrison, H. T. & Jones, R. B. ( 1989; ). Correlation of infecting serovar and local inflammation in genital chlamydial infections. J Infect Dis 160, 332–336.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Caldwell, H. D., Kromhout, J. & Schachter, J. ( 1981; ). Purification and partial characterization of the major outer membrane protein of Chlamydia trachomatis. Infect Immun 31, 1161–1176.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Darville, T. ( 2005; ). Chlamydia trachomatis infections in neonates and young children. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 16, 235–244.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Fioravante, F. C., Costa Alves, M. F., Guimarães, E. M., Turchi, M. D., Freitas, H. A. & Domingos, L. T. ( 2005; ). Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in asymptomatic Brazilian military conscripts. Sex Transm Dis 32, 165–169.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Gallo Vaulet, L., Entrocassi, C., Corominas, A. I. & Rodríguez Fermepin, M. ( 2010; ). Distribution study of Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes in symptomatic patients in Buenos Aires, Argentina: association between genotype E and neonatal conjunctivitis. BMC Res Notes 3, 34.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Gao, X., Chen, X. S., Yin, Y. P., Zhong, M. Y., Shi, M. Q., Wei, W. H., Chen, Q., Peeling, R. W. & Mabey, D. ( 2007; ). Distribution study of Chlamydia trachomatis serovars among high-risk women in China performed using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism genotyping. J Clin Microbiol 45, 1185–1189.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Geisler, W. M., Suchland, R. J., Whittington, W. L. H. & Stamm, W. E. ( 2003; ). The relationship of serovar to clinical manifestations of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Sex Transm Dis 30, 160–165.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Guimarães, E. M., Guimarães, M. D., Vieira, M. A., Bontempo, N. M., Seixas, M. S., Garcia, M. S., Daud, L. E., Côrtes, R. L. & Alves, M. F. ( 2009; ). Lack of utility of risk score and gynecological examination for screening for sexually transmitted infections in sexually active adolescents. BMC Med 7, 8.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Hsu, M. C., Tsai, P. Y., Chen, K. T., Li, L. H., Chiang, C. C., Tsai, J. J., Ke, L. Y., Chen, H. Y. & Li, S. Y. ( 2006; ). Genotyping of Chlamydia trachomatis from clinical specimens in Taiwan. J Med Microbiol 55, 301–308.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Jónsdóttir, K., Kristjánsson, M., Hjaltalín Olafsson, J. & Steingrímsson, O. ( 2003; ). The molecular epidemiology of genital Chlamydia trachomatis in the greater Reykjavik area, Iceland. Sex Transm Dis 30, 249–256.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Jurstrand, M., Falk, L., Fredlund, H., Lindberg, M., Olcén, P., Andersson, S., Persson, K., Albert, J. & Bäckman, A. ( 2001; ). Characterization of Chlamydia trachomatis omp1 genotypes among sexually transmitted disease patients in Sweden. J Clin Microbiol 39, 3915–3919.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Klint, M., Fuxelius, H. H., Goldkuhl, R. R., Skarin, H., Rutemark, C., Andersson, S. G., Persson, K. & Herrmann, B. ( 2007; ). High-resolution genotyping of Chlamydia trachomatis strains by multilocus sequence analysis. J Clin Microbiol 45, 1410–1414.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Lima, H. E., Oliveira, M. B., Valente, B. G., Afonso, D. A., Darocha, W. D., Souza, M. C., Alvim, T. C., Barbosa-Stancioli, E. F. & Noronha, F. S. ( 2007; ). Genotyping of Chlamydia trachomatis from endocervical specimens in Brazil. Sex Transm Dis 34, 709–717.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Lysén, M., Österlund, A., Rubin, C. J., Persson, T., Persson, I. & Herrmann, B. ( 2004; ). Characterization of ompA genotypes by sequence analysis of DNA from all detected cases of Chlamydia trachomatis infections during 1 year of contact tracing in a Swedish county. J Clin Microbiol 42, 1641–1647.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Mahony, J. B., Luinstra, K. E., Sellors, J. W. & Chernesky, M. A. ( 1993; ). Comparison of plasmid- and chromosome-based polymerase chain reaction assays for detecting Chlamydia trachomatis nucleic acids. J Clin Microbiol 31, 1753–1758.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Millman, K., Black, C. M., Johnson, R. E., Stamm, W. E., Jones, R. B., Hook, E. W., Martin, D. H., Bolan, G., Tavaré, S. & Dean, D. ( 2004; ). Population-based genetic and evolutionary analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital strain variation in the United States. J Bacteriol 186, 2457–2465.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Miranda, A. E., Szwarcwald, C. L., Peres, R. L. & Page-Shafer, K. ( 2004; ). Prevalence and risk behaviors for chlamydial infection in a population-based study of female adolescents in Brazil. Sex Transm Dis 31, 542–546.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Mossman, D., Beagley, K. W., Landay, A. L., Loewenthal, M., Ooi, C., Timms, P. & Boyle, M. ( 2008; ). Genotyping of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis in regional New South Wales, Australia. Sex Transm Dis 35, 614–616.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Ngandjio, A., Clerc, M., Fonkoua, M. C., Thonnon, J., Njock, F., Pouillot, R., Lunel, F., Bebear, C., De Barbeyrac, B. & Bianchi, A. ( 2003; ). Screening of volunteer students in Yaounde (Cameroon, Central Africa) for Chlamydia trachomatis infection and genotyping of isolated C. trachomatis strains. J Clin Microbiol 41, 4404–4407.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Pedersen, L. N., Pødenphant, L. & Møller, J. K. ( 2008; ). Highly discriminative genotyping of Chlamydia trachomatis using omp1 and a set of variable number tandem repeats. Clin Microbiol Infect 14, 644–652.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Pedersen, L. N., Herrmann, B. & Møller, J. K. ( 2009; ). Typing Chlamydia trachomatis: from egg yolk to nanotechnology. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 55, 120–130.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Persson, K. & Osser, S. ( 1993; ). Lack of evidence of a relationship between genital symptoms, cervicitis and salpingitis and different serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 12, 195–199.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Petrovay, F., Balla, E., Németh, I. & Gönczöl, E. ( 2009; ). Genotyping of Chlamydia trachomatis from the endocervical specimens of high-risk women in Hungary. J Med Microbiol 58, 760–764.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Quint, K., Porras, C., Safaeian, M., González, P., Hildesheim, A., Quint, W., Van Doorn, L. J., Silva, S., Melchers, W. & other authors ( 2007; ). Evaluation of a novel PCR-based assay for detection and identification of Chlamydia trachomatis serovars in cervical specimens. J Clin Microbiol 45, 3986–3991.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Stephens, R. S., Sanchez-Pescador, R., Wagar, E. A., Inouye, C. & Urdea, M. S. ( 1987; ). Diversity of Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein genes. J Bacteriol 169, 3879–3885.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Stothard, D. R., Boguslawski, G. & Jones, R. B. ( 1998; ). Phylogenetic analysis of the Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein and examination of potential pathogenic determinants. Infect Immun 66, 3618–3625.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Sturm-Ramirez, K., Brumblay, H., Diop, K., Guèye-Ndiaye, A., Sankalé, J. L., Thior, I., N'Doye, I., Hsieh, C. C., Mboup, S. & Kanki, P. J. ( 2000; ). Molecular epidemiology of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in high-risk women in Senegal, West Africa. J Clin Microbiol 38, 138–145.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Taheri Beni, B., Motamedi, H. & Ardakani, M. R. ( 2010; ). Genotyping of the prevalent Chlamydia trachomatis strains involved in cervical infections in women in Ahvaz, Iran. J Med Microbiol 59, 1023–1028.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Van de Laar, M. J., Van Duynhoven, Y. T., Fennema, J. S., Ossewaarde, J. M., Van den Brule, A. J., Van Doornum, G. J., Coutinho, R. A. & Van den Hoek, J. A. ( 1996; ). Differences in clinical manifestations of genital chlamydial infections related to serovars. Genitourin Med 72, 261–265.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Van Duynhoven, Y. T., Ossewaarde, J. M., Derksen-Nawrocki, R. P., Van der Meijden, W. I. & Van de Laar, M. J. ( 1998; ). Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes: correlation with clinical manifestations of infection and patients' characteristics. Clin Infect Dis 26, 314–322.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Wang, S. P., Kuo, C. C. & Grayston, J. T. ( 1973; ). A simplified method for immunological typing of trachoma-inclusion conjunctivitis-lymphogranuloma venereum organisms. Infect Immun 7, 356–360.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. WHO ( 2001; ). Global Prevalence and Incidence of Selected Curable Sexually Transmitted Infections: Overview and estimates, pp. 10–14. Geneva. : World Health Organization. www.who.int/hiv/pub/sti/who_hiv_aids_2001.02.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Yuan, Y., Zhang, Y. X., Watkins, N. G. & Caldwell, H. D. ( 1989; ). Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences for the four variable domains of the major outer membrane proteins of the 15 Chlamydia trachomatis serovars. Infect Immun 57, 1040–1049.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.026476-0
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.026476-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error