1887

Abstract

Histone H4 is highly conserved and forms a central-core nucleosome with H3 in eukaryotic chromatin. Its covalent modification at the protruding N-terminal region from the nucleosomal core can change the chromatin conformation in order to regulate gene expression. A viral H4 was found in the genome of bracovirus (CpBV). The obligate host of the virus is an endoparasitoid wasp, , which parasitizes the diamondback moth, , and interrupts host development and immune reactions. CpBV has been regarded as a major source for interrupting the physiological processes during parasitization. CpBV H4 shows high sequence identity with the amino acid sequence of H4 except for an extended N-terminal region (38 aa). This extended N-terminal CpBV H4 contains nine lysine residues. CpBV H4 was expressed in parasitized by . Western blot analysis using a wide-spectrum H4 antibody showed two H4s in parasitized . In parasitized haemocytes, CpBV H4 was detected predominantly in the nucleus and was highly acetylated. The effect of CpBV H4 on haemocytes was analysed by transient expression using a eukaryotic expression vector, which was injected into non-parasitized . Expression of CpBV H4 was confirmed in the transfected by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence assays. Haemocytes of the transfected larvae lost their spreading ability on an extracellular matrix. Inhibition of the cellular immune response by transient expression was reversed by RNA interference using dsRNA of CpBV H4. These results suggest that CpBV H4 plays a critical role in suppressing host immune responses during parasitization.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.83585-0
2008-04-01
2019-11-13
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/89/4/931.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.83585-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Andrew,, N., Basio, M. & Kim, Y. ( 2006; ). Additive effect of teratocyte and calyx fluid from Cotesia plutellae on immunosuppression of Plutella xylostella. Physiol Entomol 31, 341–347.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Beck, M. & Strand, M. R. ( 2005; ). Glc1.8 from Microplitis demolitor bracovirus induces a loss of adhesion and phagocytosis in insect High Five and S2 cells. J Virol 79, 1861–1870.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bradford, M. M. ( 1976; ). A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 72, 248–254.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Choi, J. Y., Rho, J. Y., Kang, J. N., Shim, H. J., Woo, S. D., Jin, B. R., Li, M. S. & Je, Y. H. ( 2005; ). Genomic segments cloning analysis of Cotesia plutellae polydnavirus using plasmid capture system. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 332, 487–493.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. DeLange, R. J. & Smith, E. L. ( 1971; ). Histones: structure and function. Annu Rev Biochem 40, 279–314.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Dhalluin, C., Carlson, J. E., Zeng, L., He, C., Aggarwal, A. K. & Zhou, M. M. ( 1999; ). Structure and ligand of a histone acetyltransferase bromodomain. Nature 399, 491–496.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Dion, M. F., Altschuler, S. J., Wu, L. F. & Rando, O. J. ( 2005; ). Genomic characterization reveals a simple histone H4 acetylation code. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102, 5501–5506.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Espagne, E., Catherine, D., Huguet, E., Cattolico, L., Provost, B., Martins, N., Poirieì, M., Periquet, G. & Drezen, J. M. ( 2004; ). Genome sequence of a polydnavirus: insights into symbiotic virus evolution. Science 306, 286–289.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Grunstein, M. ( 1997; ). Histone acetylation in chromatin structure and transcription. Nature 389, 349–352.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Ibrahim, A. M. A. & Kim, Y. ( 2007; ). Transient expression of protein tyrosine phosphatases encoded in Cotesia plutellae bracovirus inhibits insect cellular immune responses. Naturwissenschaften 95, 25–32.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Ibrahim, A. M. A., Choi, J. Y., Je, Y. H. & Kim, Y. ( 2005; ). Structure and expression profile of two putative Cotesia plutellae bracovirus genes (CpBV-H4 and CpBV- E94α) in parasitized Plutella xylostella. J Asia Pacific Entomol 8, 359–366.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Ibrahim, A. M. A., Choi, J. Y., Je, Y. H. & Kim, Y. ( 2007; ). Protein tyrosine phosphatases encoded in Cotesia plutellae bracovirus: sequence analysis, expression profile, and a possible biological role in host immunosuppression. Dev Comp Immunol 31, 978–990.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Kim, Y. & Ryu, S. ( 2007; ). Ultrastructure of Cotesia plutellae bracovirus in its replication at wasp ovarian calyx. J Asia Pacific Entomol 10, 357–361.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Kim, Y., Basio, N. A., Ibrahim, A. M. A. & Bae, S. ( 2006a; ). Gene structure of Cotesia plutellae bracovirus (CpBV)-IkB and its expression pattern in the parasitized diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. Kor J Appl Entomol 45, 15–24.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Kim, Y., Ibrahim, A. M. A., Hung, S. & Kwoen, M. ( 2006b; ). Differential parasitic capacity of Cotesia plutellae and C. glomerata on diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella and dichotomous taxonomic characters. J Asia Pacific Entomol 9, 293–300.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Kim, Y., Choi, J. Y. & Je, Y. H. ( 2007; ). Cotesia plutellae bracovirus genome and its function in altering insect physiology. J Asia Pacific Entomol 10, 181–191.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Kimura, A., Umehara, T. & Horikoshi, M. ( 2002; ). Chromosomal gradient of histone acetylation established by Sas2p and Sir2p functions as a shield against gene silencing. Nat Genet 32, 370–377.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Kroemer, J. A. & Webb, B. A. ( 2004; ). Polydnavirus and genome: emerging gene families and new insights into polydnavirus replication. Annu Rev Entomol 49, 431–456.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Kuo, M. H. & Allis, C. D. ( 1998; ). Roles of histone acetyltransferases in gene regulation. BioEssays 20, 615–626.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Laemmli, U. K. ( 1970; ). Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227, 680–685.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Lee, K., Cho, S., Lee, H., Choi, J. Y., Je, Y. H. & Kim, Y. ( 2005; ). Gene expression pattern of Cotesia plutellae bracovirus EP1-like protein (CpBV-ELP1) in parasitized diamondback moth Plutellae xylostella. J Asia Pacific Entomol 8, 249–255.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Lin, G. & Blissard, G. W. ( 2002; ). Analysis of an Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus lef-6-null virus: LEF-6 is not essential for viral replication but appears to accelerate late gene transcription. J Virol 76, 5503–5514.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Lu, A. & Miller, L. K. ( 1995; ). The roles of eighteen baculovirus late expression factor genes in transcription and DNA replication. J Virol 69, 975–982.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Nalini, M. & Kim, Y. ( 2007; ). A putative protein translation inhibitory factor encoded by Cotesia plutellae bracovirus suppresses host hemocyte-spreading behavior. J Insect Physiol 53, 1283–1292.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Pazin, M. J. & Kadonaga, J. T. ( 1997; ). What's up and down with histone deacetylation and transcription? Cell 89, 325–328.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Peterson, C. L. & Laniel, M. A. ( 2004; ). Histones and histone modifications. Curr Biol 14, R546–R551.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Pineau, P., Henry, M., Suspène, R., Marchio, A., Dettai, A., Debruyne, R., Petit, T., Lécu, A., Moisson, P. & other authors ( 2004; ). A universal primer set for PCR amplification of nuclear histone H4 genes from all animal species. Mol Biol Evol 22, 582–588.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. SAS Institute ( 1989; ). SAS/STAT User's Guide, release 6.03 edn. Cary, NC: SAS Institute.
  29. Shogren-Knaak, M., Ishii, H., Sun, J.-M., Pazin, M. J., Davie, J. R. & Peterson, C. L. ( 2006; ). Histone H4-K16 acetylation controls chromatin structure and protein interactions. Science 311, 844–847.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Thatcher, T. H. & Gorovsky, M. A. ( 1994; ). Phylogenetic analysis of the core histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. Nucleic Acids Res 22, 174–179.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Towbin, H., Staehelin, T. & Gordon, J. ( 1979; ). Electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets: procedure and some applications. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 76, 4350–4354.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Tse, C., Sera, T., Wolffe, A. P. & Hansen, J. C. ( 1998; ). Disruption of higher-order folding by core histone acetylation dramatically enhances transcription of nucleosomal arrays by RNA polymerase III. Mol Cell Biol 18, 4629–4638.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Turner, B. M. ( 1993; ). Decoding the nucleosome. Cell 75, 5–8.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Weber, B., Annaheim, M. & Lanzrein, B. ( 2007; ). Transcriptional analysis of polydnaviral genes in the course of parasitization reveals segment-specific patterns. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 66, 9–22.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Whitfield, J. B. ( 1990; ). Parasitoids, polydnaviruses and endosymbiosis. Parasitol Today 6, 381–384.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Wolffe, A. P. ( 1992; ). Chromatin: Structure and Function. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
  37. Wolffe, A. P. & Hayes, J. J. ( 1999; ). Chromatin disruption and modification. Nucleic Acids Res 27, 711–720.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Wu, R. S., Panusz, H. T., Hatcj, C. L. & Bonner, W. M. ( 1986; ). Histones and their modifications. CRC Crit Rev Biochem 20, 201–263.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.83585-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.83585-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error