1887

Abstract

The immunopathogenesis of dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome is thought to be mediated by a variety of host factors. Enhancing antibodies are one of the key regulating molecules. These antibodies, via antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection, are able to facilitate dengue virus (DENV) growth in Fc-bearing host cells. The mechanism of ADE-enhanced DENV production is believed to be mediated through increasing the infected-cell mass. In the present work, the effect of ADE infection was explored further, focusing on the post-entry events of ADE infection. It was hypothesized that the higher virus production in ADE infection compared with DENV infection may be due to the ability of this infection pathway to suppress key antiviral molecules. Therefore, the influence of ADE infection on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-12 (IL-12), gamma interferon (IFN-), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-), IL-6 and IL-10, was investigated and it was found that DENV infection via the Fc receptor-mediated pathway was able to suppress the transcription and translation of IL-12, IFN- and TNF-. In contrast, infection via this route facilitated expression and synthesis of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-10. Moreover, this study demonstrates that the ADE infection pathway also suppresses an innate anti-DENV mediator, nitric oxide radicals, by disrupting the transcription of the iNOS gene transcription factor, IRF-1, and blocking the activation of STAT-1. In conclusion, ADE infection not only facilitates the entry process, but also modifies innate and adaptive intracellular antiviral mechanisms, resulting in unrestricted DENV replication in THP-1 cells.

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2007-02-01
2019-09-23
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