1887

Abstract

The entry into cells of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a prototype member of the paramyxoviruses, is believed to occur by direct fusion at the plasma membrane through a pH-independent mechanism. In addition, NDV may enter host cells by an endocytic pathway. Treatment of cells with drugs that block caveolae-dependent endocytosis reduced NDV fusion and infectivity, the degree of inhibition being dependent on virus concentration. The inhibitory effect was reduced greatly when drugs were added after virus adsorption. Cells treated with methyl -cyclodextrin, a drug that sequesters cholesterol from membranes, reduced the extent of fusion, infectivity and virus–cell binding; this indicates that cholesterol plays a role in NDV entry. Double-labelling immunofluorescence assays performed with anti-NDV monoclonal antibodies and antibodies against the early endosome marker EEA1 revealed the localization of the virus in these intracellular structures. Using fluorescence microscopy, it was found that cell–cell fusion was enhanced at low pH. It is concluded that NDV may infect cells through a caveolae-dependent endocytic pathway, suggesting that this pathway could be an alternative route for virus entry into cells.

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2007-02-01
2020-01-19
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