1887

Abstract

It was previously shown that, unlike the type member of the genus (TMV U1), a crucifer-infecting tobamovirus (crTMV) contains a 148 nt internal ribosome entry site (IRES) upstream of the coat protein (CP) gene. Here, viral vectors with substitutions in the stem–loop (SL) region of CP subgenomic promoters (TMV U1-CP–GFP/SL-mut and crTMV-CP–GFP/SL-mut) were constructed and the levels of CP synthesis in agroinoculation experiments were compared. No CP–GFP (green fluorescent protein) synthesis was detected in leaves inoculated with TMV U1-CP–GFP/SL-mut, whereas a small amount of CP–GFP synthesis was obtained in crTMV-CP–GFP/SL-mut-injected leaves. Northern blots proved that both promoters were inactive. It could be hypothesized that IRES-mediated early production of the CP by crTMV is needed for realization of its crucifer-infecting capacity.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.82095-0
2006-09-01
2019-11-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/87/9/2693.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.82095-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Asurmendi, S., Berg, R. H., Koo, J. C. & Beachy, R. N. ( 2004; ). Coat protein regulates formation of replication complexes during tobacco mosaic virus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101, 1415–1420.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Beachy, R. N. & Zaitlin, M. ( 1977; ). Characterization and in vitro translation of the RNAs from less-than-full-length, virus-related, nucleoprotein rods present in tobacco mosaic virus preparations. Virology 81, 160–169.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bruening, G., Beachy, R. N., Scalla, R. & Zaitlin, M. ( 1976; ). In vitro and in vivo translation of the ribonucleic acids of cowpea strain of tobacco mosaic virus. Virology 71, 498–517.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Canto, T., MacFarlane, S. A. & Palukaitis, P. ( 2004; ). ORF6 of Tobacco mosaic virus is a determinant of viral pathogenicity in Nicotiana benthamiana. J Gen Virol 85, 3123–3133.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Deom, C. M., Oliver, M. J. & Beachy, R. N. ( 1987; ). The 30-kilodalton gene product of tobacco mosaic virus potentiates virus movement. Science 237, 389–394.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Dorokhov, Y. L., Ivanov, P. A., Novikov, V. K., Efimov, V. A. & Atabekov, J. G. ( 1993; ). Cruciferous tobamovirus: nucleotide sequences of movement protein, coat protein gene and 3′ untranslated region. Dokl Akad Nauk 332, 518–522 (in Russian).
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Dorokhov, Yu. L., Ivanov, P. A., Novikov, V. K., Agranovsky, A. A., Morozov, S. Yu., Efimov, V. A., Casper, R. & Atabekov, J. G. ( 1994; ). Complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of a tobamovirus infecting cruciferae plants. FEBS Lett 350, 5–8.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Dorokhov, Y. L., Skulachev, M. V., Ivanov, P. A., Zvereva, S. D., Tjulkina, L. G., Merits, A., Gleba, Y. Y., Hohn, T. & Atabekov, J. G. ( 2002; ). Polypurine (A)-rich sequences promote cross-kingdom conservation of internal ribosome entry. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99, 5301–5306.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Dorokhov, Y. L., Skurat, E. V., Frolova, O. Yu. & 7 other authors ( 2004; ). Reciprocal dependence between pectinmethylesterase gene expression and tobamovirus reproduction effectiveness in Nicotiana benthamiana. Dokl Biochem Biophys 394, 30–32.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Goelet, P. & Karn, J. ( 1982; ). Tobacco mosaic virus induces the synthesis of a family of 3′ coterminal messenger RNAs and their complements. J Mol Biol 154, 541–550.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Grdzelishvili, V. Z., Chapman, S. N., Dawson, W. O. & Lewandowski, D. J. ( 2000; ). Mapping of the tobacco mosaic virus movement protein and coat protein subgenomic RNA promoters in vivo. Virology 275, 177–192.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Higgins, T. J. V., Goodwin, P. B. & Whitfield, P. R. ( 1976; ). Occurrence of short particles in beans infected with cowpea strain of TMV II. Evidence that short particles contain the cistron for coat-protein. Virology 71, 486–497.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Hunter, T., Hunt, T., Knowland, J. & Zimmern, D. ( 1976; ). Messenger RNA for the coat protein of tobacco mosaic virus. Nature 260, 759–764.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Ishikawa, M., Meshi, T., Ohno, T. & Okada, Y. ( 1991; ). Specific cessation of minus-strand RNA accumulation at an early stage of tobacco mosaic virus infection. J Virol 65, 861–868.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Ivanov, P. A., Karpova, O. V., Skulachev, M. V., Tomashevskaya, O. L., Rodionova, N. P., Dorokhov, Yu. L. & Atabekov, J. G. ( 1997; ). A tobamovirus genome that contains an internal ribosome entry site functional in vitro. Virology 232, 32–43.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Lehto, K., Grantham, G. L. & Dawson, W. O. ( 1990; ). Insertion of sequences containing the coat protein subgenomic RNA promoter and leader in front of the tobacco mosaic virus 30K ORF delays its expression and causes defective cell-to-cell movement. Virology 174, 145–157.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Lewandowski, D. J. & Dawson, W. O. ( 2000; ). Functions of the 126- and 183-kDa proteins of tobacco mosaic virus. Virology 271, 90–98.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Man, M. & Epel, B. L. ( 2004; ). Characterization of regulatory elements within the coat protein (CP) coding region of tobacco mosaic virus affecting subgenomic transcription and green fluorescent protein expression from the CP subgenomic RNA promoter. J Gen Virol 85, 1727–1738.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Marillonnet, S., Thoeringer, C., Kandzia, R., Klimyuk, V. & Gleba, Y. ( 2005; ). Systemic Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transfection of viral replicons for efficient transient expression in plants. Nat Biotechnol 23, 718–723.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Meshi, T., Watanabe, Y., Saito, T., Sugimoto, A., Maeda, T. & Okada, Y. ( 1987; ). Function of the 30 kd protein of tobacco mosaic virus: involvement in cell-to-cell movement and dispensability for replication. EMBO J 6, 2557–2563.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Pelham, H. R. ( 1978; ). Leaky UAG termination codon in tobacco mosaic virus RNA. Nature 272, 469–471.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Skulachev, M. V., Ivanov, P. A., Karpova, O. V., Korpela, T., Rodionova, N. P., Dorokhov, Y. L. & Atabekov, J. G. ( 1999; ). Internal initiation of translation directed by the 5′-untranslated region of the tobamovirus subgenomic RNA I2. Virology 263, 139–154.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Voinnet, O., Rivas, S., Mestre, P. & Baulcombe, D. ( 2003; ). An enhanced transient expression system in plants based on suppression of gene silencing by the p19 protein of tomato bushy stunt virus. Plant J 33, 949–956.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Zvereva, S. D., Ivanov, P. A., Skulachev, M. V., Klyushin, A. G., Dorokhov, Y. L. & Atabekov, J. G. ( 2004; ). Evidence for contribution of internal ribosome entry site to intercellular transport of a tobamovirus. J Gen Virol 85, 1739–1744.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.82095-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.82095-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error