1887

Abstract

A murine model has been developed to study maternal transmission of the temperature-sensitive Moloney murine leukemia virus (ts-1). The goal of this study was to confirm early and late mother-to-offspring transmission of the virus and demonstrate transmission via breast milk. A series of six experiments was performed using six groups of BALB/c mice. Group 1 consisted of pups born to ts-1-infected mothers removed at birth to suckle from surrogate uninfected mothers. Groups 2 and 5 consisted of pups born to ts-1-infected mothers that suckled from ts-1-infected mothers (surrogate and biological). Group 3 consisted of non-infected pups removed at birth to suckle from ts-1-infected mothers. Groups 4 and 6 consisted of non-infected pups suckled from non-infected mothers. The combined , intrapartum and breast-milk infection rate was 100 % to the offspring (groups 2 and 5). The to early post-partum group (group 1) had an infection rate of 78 %. Breast milk alone (group 3) resulted in a 97 % infection rate. Control groups (groups 4 and 6) had a 0 % infection rate. The relative frequency of maternal CD4 cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was consistently lower in infected mothers, whilst offspring did not show a significant decrease in CD4 frequency. Pups infected via breast milk had a lower CD4 frequency (group 3) than those infected by the uterine and/or intrapartum route (group 1). Breast milk from ts-1-infected mothers appears to be highly infectious for neonatal BALB/c mice.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.82015-0
2006-09-01
2020-10-30
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/87/9/2679.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.82015-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bryson Y. J., Luzuriaga K., Sullivan J. L., Wara D. W. 1992; Proposed definitions for in utero versus intrapartum transmission of HIV-1. N Engl J Med 327:1246–1247 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Chakraborty J., Clark S., Okonta H., Duggan J. 2003; A small animal model for mother-to-fetus transmission of ts1, a murine retrovirus. Viral Immunol 16:191–201 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Clark S., Duggan J., Chakraborty J. 2001; ts1 and LP-BM5: a comparison of two murine retrovirus models for HIV. Viral Immunol 14:95–109 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Coutsoudis A., Dabis F., Fawzi W. & 11 other authors 2004; Late postnatal transmission of HIV-1 in breast-fed children: an individual patient data meta-analysis. The Breastfeeding and HIV International Transmission Study Group. J Infect Dis 189:2154–2166 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Duggan J., Okonta H., Chakraborty J. 2004; Vertical transmission of a murine retrovirus, ts1. Viral Immunol 17:266–278 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Ichimaru M., Ikeda S., Kinoshita K., Hino S., Tsuji Y. 1991; Mother-to-child transmission of HTLV-1. Cancer Detect Prev 15:177–181
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Kawase K., Katamine S., Moriuchi R. & 7 other authors 1992; Maternal transmission of HTLV-1 other than through breast milk: discrepancy between the polymerase chain reaction positivity of cord blood samples for HTLV-1 and the subsequent seropositivity of individuals. Jpn J Cancer Res 83:968–977 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Magder L. S., Mofenson L., Paul M. E., Zorrilla C. D., Blattner W. A., Tuomala R. E., LaRussa P., Landesman S., Rich K. C. 2005; Risk factors for in utero and intrapartum transmission of HIV. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 38:87–95 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Prasad G., Stoica G., Wong P. K. Y. 1989; The role of the thymus in the pathogenesis of hind-limb paralysis induced by ts1, a mutant of Moloney murine leukemia virus-TB. Virology 169:332–340 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Renjifo B., Gilbert P., Chaplin B., Msamanga G., Mwakagile D., Fawzi W., Essex M. 2004; Preferential in-utero transmission of HIV-1 subtype C, as compared to HIV-1 subtype A, or D. Tanzanian Vitamin and HIV Study Group and Max Essex. AIDS 18:1629–1636 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Saha K., Wong P. K. Y. 1992; ts 1, a temperature-sensitive mutant of Moloney murine leukemia virus TB, can infect both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells but requires CD4+ T cells in order to cause paralysis and immunodeficiency. J Virol 66:2639–2646
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Saha K., Hollowell D., Wong P. K. Y. 1994a; Mother-to-baby transfer of humoral immunity against retrovirus-induced neurologic disorders and immunodeficiency. Virology 198:129–137 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Saha K., Yuen P. H., Wong P. K. Y. 1994b; Murine retrovirus-induced depletion of T cells is mediated through activation-induced death by apoptosis. J Virol 68:2735–2740
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Wong P. K. Y. 1990; Moloney murine leukemia virus temperature-sensitive mutants: a model for retrovirus-induced neurologic disorders. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 160:29–60
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Wong P. K. Y., McCarter J. A. 1973; Genetic studies of temperature-sensitive mutants of Moloney murine leukemia virus. Virology 53:319–326 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Wong P. K. Y., McCarter J. A. 1974; Studies of two temperature-sensitive mutants of Moloney murine leukemia virus. Virology 58:396–408 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Wong P. K. Y., Knupp C., Yuen P. H., Soong M. M., Zachary J. F., Tompkins W. A. F. 1985; ts 1, a paralytogenic mutant of Moloney murine leukemia virus TB, has an enhanced ability to replicate in the central nervous system and primary nerve cell culture. J Virol 55:760–767
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Wong P. K. Y., Prasad G., Hansen J., Yuen P. H. 1989; ts 1, a mutant of Moloney murine leukemia virus-TB, causes both immunodeficiency and neurologic disorders in BALB/c mice. Virology 170:450–459 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Zijenah L. S., Moulton L. H., Iliff P. & 7 other authors 2004; Timing of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 and infant mortality in the first 6 months of life in Harare, Zimbabwe. ZVITAMBO Study Group. AIDS 18:273–280 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.82015-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.82015-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error