1887

Abstract

Bats represent the major source of human rabies cases in the New World. In the USA, most cases are associated with species that are not commonly found or reported rabid. To understand better the epidemiology and public health significance of potentially important bat species, a molecular study was performed on samples collected from naturally infected rabid western pipistrelle (), eastern pipistrelle () and silver-haired bats () from different regions of their geographical distribution in the USA. A 264 bp fragment at the 5′ end of the N gene coding region was sequenced and analysed in comparison with rabies virus variants circulating within other North American mammals. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that bats maintain a unique rabies virus variant. Preliminary data also suggest that and may harbour two different rabies virus variants (Ps and Ln) that are likely to be maintained independently by each bat species, which recently appear to have emerged as major vectors of human disease.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.81822-0
2006-08-01
2019-11-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/87/8/2309.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.81822-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Barbour, R. W. & Davis, W. H. ( 1969; ). Bats of America. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press.
  2. Belotto, A., Leanes, L. F., Schneider, M. C., Tamayo, H. & Correa, E. ( 2005; ). Overview of rabies in the Americas. Virus Res 111, 5–12.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Betts, B. J. ( 1998; ). Roosts used by maternity colonies of silver-haired bats in northeastern Oregon. J Mammal 79, 643–650.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Campbell, L. A., Hallett, J. G. & O'Connell, M. A. ( 1996; ). Conservation of bats in managed forests: use of roosts by Lasionycteris noctivagans. J Mammal 77, 976–984.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. CDC ( 1994; ). Human rabies - Texas and California, 1993. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 43, 93–96.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Constantine, D. G. ( 1967; ). Bat rabies in the southwestern United States. Public Health Rep 82, 867–888.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Constantine, D. G. ( 1970; ). Bats in relation to the health, welfare, and economy of man. In Biology of Bats, vol. 2, pp. 319–449. Edited by W. A. Wimsatt. New York: Academic Press.
  8. Constantine, D. G. ( 1979; ). An updated list of rabies-infected bats in North America. J Wildl Dis 15, 347–349.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Dean, D. J., Abelseth, M. K. & Atanasiu, P. ( 1996; ). The fluorescent antibody test. In Laboratory Techniques in Rabies, 4th edn, pp. 88–95. Edited by F. X. Meslin, M. M. Kaplan & H. Koprowski. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.
  10. Dietzschold, B., Morimoto, K., Hooper, D. C., Smith, J. S., Rupprecht, C. E. & Koprowski, H. ( 2000; ). Genotypic and phenotypic diversity of rabies virus variants involved in human rabies: implications for post-exposure prophylaxis. J Hum Virol 3, 50–57.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Findley, J. S. & Traut, G. L. ( 1970; ). Geographic variation in Pipistrellus hesperus. J Mammal 51, 741–765.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Geluso, K., Mollhagen, T. R., Tigner, J. M. & Bogan, M. A. ( 2005; ). Westward expansion of the eastern pipistrelle (Pipistrellus subflavus) in the United States including new records from New Mexico, South Dakota and Texas. West N Am Nat 65, 405–409.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Hall, T. A. ( 1999; ). BioEdit: a user friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser 41, 95–98.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Hall, E. R. & Dalquest, W. W. ( 1950; ). A synopsis of the American bats of the genus Pipistrellus. Univ. Kansas Publ Mus Nat Hist 1, 591–602.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Hasegawa, M., Kishino, H. & Yano, T. ( 1985; ). Dating of the human-ape splitting by a molecular clock of mitochondrial DNA. J Mol Evol 22, 160–174.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Hatfield, D. M. ( 1936; ). A revision of the Pipistrellus hesperus group of bats. J Mammal 17, 257–262.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Hoofer, S. R. & Van Den Bussche, R. A. ( 2003; ). Molecular phylogenetics of the chiropteran family Vespertilionidae. Acta Chiropt 5, S1–S63.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hoofer, S. R., Van Den Bussche, R. A. & Horacek, I. ( 2006; ). Generic status of American pipistrelles (Vespertilionidae) with description of a new genus. J Mammal (in press).
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hughes, G. J., Orciari, L. A. & Rupprecht, C. E. ( 2005; ). Evolutionary timescale of rabies virus adaptation to North American bats inferred from the substitution rate of the nucleoprotein gene. J Gen Virol 86, 1467–1474.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Jeanmougin, F., Thompson, J. D., Gouy, M., Higgins, D. G. & Gibson, T. J. ( 1998; ). Multiple sequence alignment with clustal x. Trends Biochem Sci 23, 403–405.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Kumar, S., Tamura, K., Jakobsen, I. B. & Nei, M. ( 2001; ). mega2: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis software. Bioinformatics 17, 1244–1245.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Mattson, T. A., Buskirk, S. W. & Stanton, N. L. ( 1996; ). Roost sites of the silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans) in the Black Hills, South Dakota. Great Basin Nat 56, 247–253.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Messenger, S. L., Smith, J. S. & Rupprecht, C. E. ( 2002; ). Emerging epidemiology of bat-associated cryptic cases of rabies in humans in the United States. Clin Infect Dis 35, 738–747.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Messenger, S. L., Smith, J. S., Orciari, L. A., Yager, P. A. & Rupprecht, C. E. ( 2003; ). Emerging pattern of rabies deaths and increased viral infectivity. Emerg Infect Dis 9, 151–154.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Morimoto, K., Patel, M., Corisdeo, S., Hooper, D. C., Fu, Z. F., Rupprecht, C. E., Koprowski, H. & Dietzschold, B. ( 1996; ). Characterization of a unique variant of bat rabies virus responsible for newly emerging human cases in North America. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93, 5653–5658.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Nadin-Davis, S. A., Huang, W., Armstrong, J., Casey, G. A., Bahloul, C., Tordo, N. & Wandeler, A. I. ( 2001; ). Antigenic and genetic divergence of rabies viruses from bat species indigenous to Canada. Virus Res 74, 139–156.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Parsons, H. J., Smith, D. A. & Whittam, R. F. ( 1986; ). Maternity colonies of silver-haired bats Lasionycteris noctivagans, in Ontario and Saskatchewan. J Mammal 67, 598–600.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Posada, D. & Crandall, K. A. ( 1998; ). modeltest: testing the model of DNA substitution. Bioinformatics 14, 817–818.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Ronquist, F. & Huelsenbeck, J. P. ( 2003; ). MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19, 1572–1574.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Rupprecht, C. E., Dietzschold, B., Wunner, W. H. & Koprowski, H. ( 1991; ). Antigenic relationships of lyssaviruses. In The Natural History of Rabies, 2nd edn, pp. 69–100. Edited by G. M. Baer. New York: Academic Press.
  31. Rupprecht, C. E., Smith, J. S., Fekadu, M. & Childs, J. E. ( 1995; ). The ascension of wildlife rabies: a cause for public health concern or intervention? Emerg Infect Dis 1, 107–114.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Smith, J. S. ( 2002; ). Molecular epidemiology. In Rabies, pp. 79–111. Edited by A. C. Jackson & W. H. Wunner. New York: Academic Press.
  33. Smith, J. S., Orciari, L. A., Yager, P. A., Seidel, H. D. & Warner, C. K. ( 1992; ). Epidemiologic and historical relationship among 87 rabies virus isolates as determined by limited sequence analysis. J Infect Dis 166, 296–307.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Swofford, D. L. ( 2002; ). paup*: phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (*and other methods) version 4.0b10. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
  35. Trimarchi, C. V. & Smith, J. S. ( 2002; ). Diagnostic evaluation. In Rabies, pp. 307–349. Edited by A. C. Jackson & W. H. Wunner. New York: Academic Press.
  36. Velasco-Villa, A., Orciari, L. A., Souza, V., Juarez-Islas, V., Gomez-Sierra, M., Castillo, A., Flisser, A. & Rupprecht, C. E. ( 2005; ). Molecular epizootiology of rabies associated with terrestrial carnivores in Mexico. Virus Res 111, 13–27.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Velasco-Villa, A., Orciari, L. A., Juárez-Islas, V. & 9 other authors ( 2006; ). Molecular diversity of rabies viruses associated with bats in Mexico and other countries of the Americas. J Clin Microbiol 44, 1697–1710.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Vonhof, M. J. & Barclay, R. M. R. ( 1996; ). Roost-site selection and roosting ecology of forest dwelling bats in southern British Columbia. Can J Zool/Rev Can Zool 74, 1797–1805.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. WHO ( 2005; ). WHO expert consultation on rabies. First Report, WHO Technical Report Series 931, Geneva, Switzerland, 2004, pp. 121. http://www.who.int/rabies/931/en/index.html.
  40. Wilson, D. E. & Ruff, S. ( 1999; ). Family Vespertilionidae. In The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals, pp. 94–131. Edited by D. E. Wilson & S. Ruff. Singapore: Smithsonian Institution.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.81822-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.81822-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error