1887

Abstract

Human norovirus (NoV) strains cause a considerable number of outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide. Based on their capsid gene (VP1) sequence, human NoV strains can be grouped into two genogroups (GI and GII) and at least 14 GI and 17 GII genotypes (GI/1–14 and GII/1–17). Human NoV strains cannot be propagated in cell-culture systems, but expression of recombinant VP1 in insect cells results in the formation of virus-like particles (VLPs). In order to understand NoV antigenic relationships better, cross-reactivity among 26 different NoV VLPs was analysed. Phylogenetic analyses grouped these NoV strains into six GI and 12 GII genotypes. An antibody ELISA using polyclonal antisera raised against these VLPs was used to determine cross-reactivity. Antisera reacted strongly with homologous VLPs; however, a number of novel cross-reactivities among different genotypes was observed. For example, GI/11 antiserum showed a broad-range cross-reactivity, detecting two GI and 10 GII genotypes. Likewise, GII/1, GII/10 and GII/12 antisera showed a broad-range cross-reactivity, detecting several other distinct GII genotypes. Alignment of VP1 amino acid sequences suggested that these broad-range cross-reactivities were due to conserved amino acid residues located within the shell and/or P1-1 domains. However, unusual cross-reactivities among different GII/3 antisera were found, with the results indicating that both conserved amino acid residues and VP1 secondary structures influence antigenicity.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.81532-0
2006-04-01
2019-10-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/87/4/909.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.81532-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bertolotti-Ciarlet, A., Crawford, S. E., Hutson, A. M. & Estes, M. K. ( 2003; ). The 3′ end of Norwalk virus mRNA contains determinants that regulate the expression and stability of the viral capsid protein VP1: a novel function for the VP2 protein. J Virol 77, 11603–11615.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Beuret, C., Baumgartner, A. & Schluep, J. ( 2003; ). Virus-contaminated oysters: a three-month monitoring of oysters imported to Switzerland. Appl Environ Microbiol 69, 2292–2297.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Chen, R., Neill, J. D., Noel, J. S., Hutson, A. M., Glass, R. I., Estes, M. K. & Prasad, B. V. V. ( 2004; ). Inter- and intragenus structural variations in caliciviruses and their functional implications. J Virol 78, 6469–6479.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Dingle, K. E. ( 2004; ). Mutation in a Lordsdale norovirus epidemic strain as a potential indicator of transmission routes. J Clin Microbiol 42, 3950–3957.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Gray, J. J., Jiang, X., Morgan-Capner, P., Desselberger, U. & Estes, M. K. ( 1993; ). Prevalence of antibodies to Norwalk virus in England: detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using baculovirus-expressed Norwalk virus capsid antigen. J Clin Microbiol 31, 1022–1025.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Green, K. Y., Kapikian, A. Z., Valdesuso, J., Sosnovtsev, S., Treanor, J. J. & Lew, J. F. ( 1997; ). Expression and self-assembly of recombinant capsid protein from the antigenically distinct Hawaii human calicivirus. J Clin Microbiol 35, 1909–1914.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Hansman, G. S., Doan, L. T. P., Kguyen, T. A. & 9 other authors ( 2004; ). Detection of norovirus and sapovirus infection among children with gastroenteritis in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Arch Virol 149, 1673–1688.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Inouye, S., Yamashita, K., Yamadera, S., Yoshikawa, M., Kato, N. & Okabe, N. ( 2000; ). Surveillance of viral gastroenteritis in Japan: pediatric cases and outbreak incidents. J Infect Dis 181, S270–S274.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Jiang, X., Graham, D. Y., Wang, K. N. & Estes, M. K. ( 1990; ). Norwalk virus genome cloning and characterization. Science 250, 1580–1583.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Jiang, X., Cubitt, D., Hu, J., Dai, X., Treanor, J., Matson, D. O. & Pickering, L. K. ( 1995a; ). Development of an ELISA to detect MX virus, a human calicivirus in the Snow Mountain Agent genogroup. J Gen Virol 76, 2739–2747.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Jiang, X., Wang, J. & Estes, M. K. ( 1995b; ). Characterization of SRSVs using RT-PCR and a new antigen ELISA. Arch Virol 140, 363–374.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Jiang, X., Wilton, N., Zhong, W. M. & 11 other authors ( 2000; ). Diagnosis of human caliciviruses by use of enzyme immunoassays. J Infect Dis 181, S349–S359.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Jiang, X., Zhong, W. M., Farkas, T., Huang, P. W., Wilton, N., Barrett, E., Fulton, D., Morrow, R. & Matson, D. O. ( 2002; ). Baculovirus expression and antigenic characterization of the capsid proteins of three Norwalk-like viruses. Arch Virol 147, 119–130.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Johansson, P. J. H., Torvén, M., Hammarlund, A.-C., Björne, U., Hedlund, K.-O. & Svensson, L. ( 2002; ). Food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis associated with genogroup I calicivirus. J Clin Microbiol 40, 794–798.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Kageyama, T., Shinohara, M., Uchida, K. & 7 other authors ( 2004; ). Coexistence of multiple genotypes, including newly identified genotypes, in outbreaks of gastroenteritis due to Norovirus in Japan. J Clin Microbiol 42, 2988–2995.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Kamata, K., Shinozaki, K., Okada, M. & 10 other authors ( 2005; ). Expression and antigenicity of virus-like particles of norovirus and their application for detection of noroviruses in stool samples. J Med Virol 76, 129–136.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Kapikian, A. Z., Wyatt, R. G., Dolin, R., Thornhill, T. S., Kalica, A. R. & Chanock, R. M. ( 1972; ). Visualization by immune electron microscopy of a 27-nm particle associated with acute infectious nonbacterial gastroenteritis. J Virol 10, 1075–1081.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Katayama, K., Shirato-Horikoshi, H., Kojima, S. & 9 other authors ( 2002; ). Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome of 18 Norwalk-like viruses. Virology 299, 225–239.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Kitamoto, N., Tanaka, T., Natori, K., Takeda, N., Nakata, S., Jiang, X. & Estes, M. K. ( 2002; ). Cross-reactivity among several recombinant calicivirus virus-like particles (VLPs) with monoclonal antibodies obtained from mice immunized orally with one type of VLP. J Clin Microbiol 40, 2459–2465.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Kobayashi, S., Sakae, K., Natori, K., Takeda, N., Miyamura, T. & Suzuki, Y. ( 2000a; ). Serotype-specific antigen ELISA for detection of Chiba virus in stools. J Med Virol 62, 233–238.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Kobayashi, S., Sakae, K., Suzuki, Y., Ishiko, H., Kamata, K., Suzuki, K., Natori, K., Miyamura, T. & Takeda, N. ( 2000b; ). Expression of recombinant capsid proteins of Chitta virus, a genogroup II Norwalk virus, and development of an ELISA to detect the viral antigen. Microbiol Immunol 44, 687–693.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Kobayashi, S., Sakae, K., Suzuki, Y. & 8 other authors ( 2000c; ). Molecular cloning, expression, and antigenicity of Seto virus belonging to genogroup I Norwalk-like viruses. J Clin Microbiol 38, 3492–3494.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. McEvoy, M., Blake, W., Brown, D., Green, J. & Cartwright, R. ( 1996; ). An outbreak of viral gastroenteritis on a cruise ship. Commun Dis Rep CDR Rev 6, R188–R192.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. McGuffin, L. J., Bryson, K. & Jones, D. T. ( 2000; ). The psipred protein structure prediction server. Bioinformatics 16, 404–405.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. McIntyre, L., Vallaster, L., Kurzac, C., Fung, J., McNabb, A., Lee, M.-K., Daly, P., Petric, M. & Isaac-Renton, J. ( 2002; ). Gastrointestinal outbreaks associated with Norwalk virus in restaurants in Vancouver, British Columbia. Can Commun Dis Rep 28, 197–203.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Nakata, S., Honma, S., Numata, K. & 8 other authors ( 1998; ). Prevalence of human calicivirus infections in Kenya as determined by enzyme immunoassays for three genogroups of the virus. J Clin Microbiol 36, 3160–3163.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Nilsson, M., Hedlund, K.-O., Thorhagen, M., Larson, G., Johansen, K., Ekspong, A. & Svensson, L. ( 2003; ). Evolution of human calicivirus RNA in vivo: accumulation of mutations in the protruding P2 domain of the capsid leads to structural changes and possibly a new phenotype. J Virol 77, 13117–13124.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Noel, J. S., Fankhauser, R. L., Ando, T., Monroe, S. S. & Glass, R. I. ( 1999; ). Identification of a distinct common strain of “Norwalk-like viruses” having a global distribution. J Infect Dis 179, 1334–1344.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Prasad, B. V. V., Hardy, M. E., Dokland, T., Bella, J., Rossmann, M. G. & Estes, M. K. ( 1999; ). X-ray crystallographic structure of the Norwalk virus capsid. Science 286, 287–290.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Russo, P. L., Spelman, D. W., Harrington, G. A., Jenney, A. W., Gunesekere, I. C., Wright, P. J., Doultree, J. C. & Marshall, J. A. ( 1997; ). Hospital outbreak of Norwalk-like virus. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 18, 576–579.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Sosnovtsev, S. V. & Green, K. Y. ( 2000; ). Identification and genomic mapping of the ORF3 and VPg proteins in feline calicivirus virions. Virology 277, 193–203.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. White, L. J., Hardy, M. E. & Estes, M. K. ( 1997; ). Biochemical characterization of a smaller form of recombinant Norwalk virus capsids assembled in insect cells. J Virol 71, 8066–8072.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. White, P. A., Hansman, G. S., Li, A., Dable, J., Isaacs, M., Ferson, M., McIver, C. J. & Rawlinson, W. D. ( 2002; ). Norwalk-like virus 95/96-US strain is a major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks in Australia. J Med Virol 68, 113–118.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.81532-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.81532-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error