1887

Abstract

The pathogenesis of strain 3711 of the chicken anemia virus (CAV), propagated in chickens, and two preparations of strain 3711 that had been adapted to grow to high titre in cells of the MDCC-MSB1 line were studied in chicken embryos and/or chickens. Highest viral loads in infected chickens, as measured by a microplate DNA-hybridization assay, were detected in the thymus, clotted blood and pancreas, and the lowest in the duodenum. The CAV DNA copy number in the organs of chicken embryos was significantly lower than in chickens. Route of infection was an important determinant of the course of disease in chickens, with clinical signs appearing earlier in birds infected by the intramuscular than those infected by the oral route; there was a direct relationship between viral load in particular organs and the extent of clinical signs. No reduction in the pathogenicity for chickens was noted for strain 3711 after 65 or 129 passages in the MDCC-MSB1 cell line.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.80599-0
2005-05-01
2020-01-26
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/86/5/vir861327.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.80599-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Adair, B. M. ( 2000; ). Immunopathogenesis of chicken anemia virus infection. Dev Comp Immunol 24, 247–255.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bisgaard, M. ( 1983; ). An age related and breeder flock associated hemorrhagic disorder in Danish broilers. Nord Vet Med 35, 397–407.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Chettle, N. J., Eddy, R. K., Wyeth, P. J. & Lister, S. A. ( 1989; ). An outbreak of disease due to chicken anaemia agent in broiler chickens in England. Vet Rec 124, 211–215.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Connor, T. J., McNeilly, F., Firth, G. A. & McNulty, M. S. ( 1991; ). Biological characterisation of Australian isolates of chicken anaemia agent. Aust Vet J 68, 199–201.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Cui, Z. Z., Jin, W. J., Liu, Y. L., Xu, Y. M., Li, Y. W. & Zhu, C. G. ( 1999; ). Multiple infections with immunosuppressive viruses in chickens in China. In Proceedings of the 1999 International Conference and Exhibition on Veterinary Poultry, Beijing, China, pp. 153–157.
  6. De Boer, G. F., van Roozelaar, D. J., Moormann, R. J., Jeurissen, S. H. M., van den Wijngaard, J. C., Hilbink, F. & Koch, G. ( 1994; ). Interaction between chicken anemia virus and live Newcastle disease virus vaccine. Avian Pathol 23, 263–275.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Engström, B. E. & Luthman, M. ( 1984; ). Blue wing disease of chickens: experimental infection with a Swedish isolate of chicken anaemia agent and an avian reovirus. Avian Pathol 13, 23–32.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Forster, A. C., McInnes, J. L., Skingle, D. C. & Symons, R. H. ( 1985; ). Non-radioactive hybridization probes prepared by the chemical labelling of DNA and RNA with a novel reagent, photobiotin. Nucleic Acids Res 13, 745–761.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Hibma, M. H., Ely, S. J. & Crawford, L. ( 1994; ). A non-radioactive assay for the detection and quantitation of a DNA binding protein. Nucleic Acids Res 22, 3806–3807.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Hoop, R. K. ( 1992; ). Persistence and vertical transmission of chicken anaemia agent in experimentally infected laying hens. Avian Pathol 21, 493–501.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Hoop, R. K. ( 1993; ). Transmission of chicken anaemia virus with semen. Vet Rec 133, 551–552.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Inouye, S. & Hondo, R. ( 1990; ). Microplate hybridization of amplified viral DNA segment. J Clin Microbiol 28, 1469–1472.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Mackay, I. ( 1999; ). Development and evaluation of a quantitative PCR for the determination of cytomegalovirus load. In Abstracts of the XIth International Congress of Virology, Sydney, Australia, VP65.23, p. 63.
  14. Markowski-Grimsrud, C. J. & Schat, K. A. ( 2003; ). Infection with chicken anaemia virus impairs the generation of pathogen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Immunology 109, 283–294.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Markowski-Grimsrud, C. J., Miller, M. M. & Schat, K. A. ( 2002; ). Development of strain-specific real-time PCR and RT-PCR assays for quantitation of chicken anemia virus. J Virol Methods 101, 135–147.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. McNulty, M. S., Connor, T. J. & McNeilly, F. ( 1990; ). Influence of virus dose on experimental anaemia due to chicken anaemia agent. Avian Pathol 19, 167–171.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Novak, R. & Ragland, W. L. ( 2001; ). Competitive DNA hybridization in microtitre plates for chicken anaemia virus. Mol Cell Probes 15, 1–11.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Otaki, Y., Nunoya, T., Tajima, M., Kato, A. & Nomura, Y. ( 1988a; ). Depression of vaccinal immunity to Marek's disease by infection with chicken anaemia agent. Avian Pathol 17, 333–347.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Otaki, Y., Tajima, M., Saito, K. & Nomura, K. ( 1988b; ). Immune response of chicks inoculated with chicken anemia agent alone or in combination with Marek's disease virus or turkey herpesvirus. Nippon Juigaku Zasshi 50, 1040–1047.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Pallansch, M. A. & Roos, R. P. ( 2001; ). Enteroviruses: polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and newer enteroviruses. In Fields Virology, 4th edn, pp. 723–775. Edited by D. M. Knipe & P. M. Howley. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  21. Pringle, C. R. ( 1999; ). Virus taxonomy at the XIth International Congress of Virology, Sydney, Australia, 1999. Arch Virol 144, 2065–2070.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Rosenberger, J. K. & Cloud, S. S. ( 1989; ). The effects of age, route of exposure, and coinfection with infectious bursal disease virus on the pathogenicity and transmissibility of chicken anemia agent (CAA). Avian Dis 33, 753–759.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Smyth, J. A., Moffett, D. A., McNulty, M. S., Todd, D. & Mackie, D. P. ( 1993; ). A sequential histopathologic and immunocytochemical study of chicken anemia virus infection at one day of age. Avian Dis 37, 324–338.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Tan, J. ( 2002; ). The use of newer methodologies to study the pathogenesis of the chicken anemia virus. PhD thesis, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
  25. Tannock, G. A., Tan, J., Mawhinney, K. A., Todd, D., O'Rourke, D. & Bagust, T. J. ( 2003; ). A modified blocking ELISA for the detection of antibody to chicken anaemia virus using an Australian strain. Aust Vet J 81, 428–430.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Todd, D. ( 2000; ). Circoviruses: immunosuppressive threats to avian species: a review. Avian Pathol 29, 373–394.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Todd, D., Mawhinney, K. A. & McNulty, M. S. ( 1992; ). Detection and differentiation of chicken anemia virus isolates by using the polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol 30, 1661–1666.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Todd, D., Connor, T. J., Calvert, V. M., Creelan, J. L., Meehan, B. M. & McNulty, M. S. ( 1995; ). Molecular cloning of an attenuated chicken anaemia virus isolate following repeated cell culture passage. Avian Pathol 24, 171–187.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Todd, D., Connor, T. J., Creelan, J. L., Borghmans, B. J., Calvert, V. M. & McNulty, M. S. ( 1998; ). Effect of multiple cell culture passages on the biological behaviour of chicken anaemia virus. Avian Pathol 27, 74–79.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Toro, H., Gonzalez, C., Cerda, L., Hess, M., Reyes, E. & Geissea, C. ( 2000; ). Chicken anemia virus and fowl adenoviruses: association to induce the inclusion body hepatitis/hydropericardium syndrome. Avian Dis 44, 51–58.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. van Santen, V. L., Kaltenboeck, B., Joiner, K. S., Macklin, K. S. & Norton, R. A. ( 2004a; ). Real-time quantitative PCR-based serum neutralization test for detection and titration of neutralizing antibodies to chicken anemia virus. J Virol Methods 115, 123–135.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. van Santen, V. L., Joiner, K. S., Murray, C., Petrenko, N., Hoerr, F. J. & Toro, H. ( 2004b; ). Pathogenesis of chicken anemia virus: comparison of the oral and the intramuscular routes of infection. Avian Dis 48, 494–504.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Vielitz, E. & Landgraf, H. ( 1988; ). Anaemia-dermatitis of broilers: field observations on its occurrence, transmission and prevention. Avian Pathol 17, 113–120.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. von Bülow, V. & Witt, W. ( 1986; ). Vermehrung des Erregers der aviären infektiosen Anämie (CAA) in embryonierten Huhnereiern. Zentbl Vetmed Reihe B 33, 664–669 (in German).
    [Google Scholar]
  35. von Bülow, V. & Schat, K. A. ( 1997; ). Infectious anaemia. In Diseases of Poultry, 10th edn, pp 739–756. Edited by B. W. Calnek, H. J. Barnes, C. W. Beard, L. R. McDougald & Y. M. Saif. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press.
  36. Yuasa, N. ( 1989; ). CAA: review and recent problems. In Proceedings of 38th Western Poultry Disease Conference, Tempe, Arizona, 14–20.
  37. Yuasa, N. & Yoshida, I. ( 1983; ). Experimental egg transmission of chicken anemia agent. Natl Inst Anim Health Q (Tokyo) 23, 99–100.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Yuasa, N., Taniguchi, T. & Yoshida, I. ( 1979; ). Isolation and characteristics of an agent inducing anemia in chicks. Avian Dis 23, 366–385.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Yuasa, N., Noguchi, T., Furuta, K. & Yoshida, I. ( 1980a; ). Maternal antibody and its effect on the susceptibility of chicks to chicken anemia agent. Avian Dis 24, 197–201.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Yuasa, N., Taniguchi, T., Noguchi, T. & Yoshida, I. ( 1980b; ). Effect of infectious bursal disease virus infection on incidence of anemia by chicken anemia agent. Avian Dis 24, 202–209.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Yuasa, N., Taniguchi, T., Imada, T. & Hihara, H. ( 1983; ). Distribution of chicken anemia agent (CAA) and detection of neutralizing antibody in chicks experimentally inoculated with CAA. Natl Inst Anim Health Q (Tokyo) 23, 78–81.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Yuasa, N., Imai, K., Watanabe, K., Saito, F., Abe, M. & Komi, K. ( 1987; ). Aetiological examination of an outbreak of haemorrhagic syndrome in a broiler flock in Japan. Avian Pathol 16, 521–526.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.80599-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.80599-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited articles

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error