1887

Abstract

Complete nucleotide sequences of 19 hepatitis B virus (HBV) isolates of genotype A (HBV/A) were determined and analysed along with those of 20 previously reported HBV/A isolates. Of the 19 HBV/A isolates, six including three from Japan and three from the USA clustered with the 14 HBV/A isolates from Western countries. The remaining 13 isolates including four from The Philippines, two from India, three from Nepal and four from Bangladesh clustered with the six HBV/A isolates reported from The Philippines, South Africa and Malawi. Due to distinct epidemiological distributions, genotype A in the 20 HBV isolates was classified into subtype Ae (e for Europe), and that in the other 19 into subtype Aa (a for Asia and Africa) provisionally. The 19 HBV/Aa isolates had a sequence variation significantly greater than that of the 20 HBV/Ae isolates (2·5±0·3 % vs 1·1±0·6 %, <0·0001); they differed by 5·0±0·4 % (4·1–6·4 %). The double mutation (T1762/A1764) in the core promoter was significantly more frequent in HBV/Aa isolates than in HBV/Ae isolates (11/19 or 58 % vs 5/20 or 25 %, <0·01). In the pregenome encapsidation () signal, a point mutation from G to A or T at nt 1862 was detected in 16 of the 19 (84 %) HBV/Aa isolates but not in any of the 20 HBV/Ae isolates, which may affect virus replication and translation of hepatitis B e antigen. Subtypes Aa and Ae of genotype A deserve evaluation for any clinical differences between them, with a special reference to hepatocellular carcinoma prevalent in Africa.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.79811-0
2004-04-01
2019-11-12
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/85/4/vir850811.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.79811-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Akuta, N., Suzuki, F., Kobayashi, M. & 8 other authors ( 2003; ). The influence of hepatitis B virus genotype on the development of lamivudine resistance during long-term treatment. J Hepatol 38, 315–321.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Arauz-Ruiz, P., Norder, H., Robertson, B. H. & Magnius, L. O. ( 2002; ). Genotype H: a new Amerindian genotype of hepatitis B virus revealed in Central America. J Gen Virol 83, 2059–2073.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Attia, M. A. ( 1998; ). Prevalence of hepatitis B and C in Egypt and Africa. Antivir Ther 3, 1–9.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bowyer, S. M., van Staden, L., Kew, M. C. & Sim, J. G. ( 1997; ). A unique segment of the hepatitis B virus group A genotype identified in isolates from South Africa. J Gen Virol 78, 1719–1729.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Carman, W. F., Jacyna, M. R., Hadziyannis, S., Karayiannis, P., McGarvey, M. J., Makris, A. & Thomas, H. C. ( 1989; ). Mutation preventing formation of hepatitis B e antigen in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. Lancet 2, 588–591.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Carman, W. F., Thursz, M., Hadziyannis, S., McIntyre, G., Colman, K., Gioustoz, A., Fattovich, G., Alberti, A. & Thomas, H. C. ( 1995; ). Hepatitis B e antigen negative chronic active hepatitis: hepatitis B virus core mutations occur predominantly in known antigenic determinants. J Viral Hepat 2, 77–84.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Chu, C. J., Hussain, M. & Lok, A. S. ( 2002; ). Hepatitis B virus genotype B is associated with earlier HBeAg seroconversion compared with hepatitis B virus genotype C. Gastroenterology 122, 1756–1762.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Di Bisceglie, A. M., Carithers, R. L., Jr & Gores, G. J. ( 1998; ). Hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology 28, 1161–1165.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Dusheiko, G. M., Bowyer, S. M., Sjogren, M. H., Ritchie, M. J., Santos, A. P. & Kew, M. C. ( 1985; ). Replication of hepatitis B virus in adult carriers in an endemic area. J Infect Dis 152, 566–571.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Edman, J. C., Gray, P., Valenzuela, P., Rall, L. B. & Rutter, W. J. ( 1980; ). Integration of hepatitis B virus sequences and their expression in a human hepatoma cell. Nature 286, 535–538.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Grethe, S., Heckel, J. O., Rietschel, W. & Hufert, F. T. ( 2000; ). Molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B virus variants in nonhuman primates. J Virol 74, 5377–5381.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Horikita, M., Itoh, S., Yamamoto, K., Shibayama, T., Tsuda, F. & Okamoto, H. ( 1994; ). Differences in the entire nucleotide sequence between hepatitis B virus genomes from carriers positive for antibody to hepatitis B e antigen with and without active disease. J Med Virol 44, 96–103.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Hou, J., Lin, Y., Waters, J. & 7 other authors ( 2002; ). Detection and significance of a G1862T variant of hepatitis B virus in Chinese patients with fulminant hepatitis. J Gen Virol 83, 2291–2298.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Ina, Y. ( 1994; ). oden: a program package for molecular evolutionary analysis and database search of DNA and amino acid sequences. Comput Appl Biosci 10, 11–12.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Kao, J. H., Chen, P. J., Lai, M. Y. & Chen, D. S. ( 2002; ). Genotypes and clinical phenotypes of hepatitis B virus in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. J Clin Microbiol 40, 1207–1209.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Kato, H., Orito, E., Gish, R. G. & 7 other authors ( 2002a; ). Hepatitis B e antigen in sera from individuals infected with hepatitis B virus of genotype G. Hepatology 35, 922–929.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Kato, H., Orito, E., Gish, R. G., Sugauchi, F., Suzuki, S., Ueda, R., Miyakawa, Y. & Mizokami, M. ( 2002b; ). Characteristics of hepatitis B virus isolates of genotype G and their phylogenetic differences from the other six genotypes (A through F). J Virol 76, 6131–6137.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Kobayashi, M., Arase, Y., Ikeda, K. & 11 other authors ( 2002; ). Viral genotypes and response to interferon in patients with acute prolonged hepatitis B virus infection of adulthood in Japan. J Med Virol 68, 522–528.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Kosaka, Y., Takase, K., Kojima, M. & 9 other authors ( 1991; ). Fulminant hepatitis B: induction by hepatitis B virus mutants defective in the precore region and incapable of encoding e antigen. Gastroenterology 100, 1087–1094.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Kramvis, A., Bukofzer, S., Kew, M. C. & Song, E. ( 1997; ). Nucleic acid sequence analysis of the precore region of hepatitis B virus from sera of southern African black adult carriers of the virus. Hepatology 25, 235–240.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Kramvis, A., Kew, M. C. & Bukofzer, S. ( 1998; ). Hepatitis B virus precore mutants in serum and liver of Southern African Blacks with hepatocellular carcinoma. J Hepatol 28, 132–141.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Kramvis, A., Weitzmann, L., Owiredu, W. K. & Kew, M. C. ( 2002; ). Analysis of the complete genome of subgroup A′ hepatitis B virus isolates from South Africa. J Gen Virol 83, 835–839.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Laskus, T., Persing, D. H., Nowicki, M. J., Mosley, J. W. & Rakela, J. ( 1993; ). Nucleotide sequence analysis of the precore region in patients with fulminant hepatitis B in the United States. Gastroenterology 105, 1173–1178.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Li, J. S., Tong, S. P., Wen, Y. M., Vitvitski, L., Zhang, Q. & Trepo, C. ( 1993; ). Hepatitis B virus genotype A rarely circulates as an HBe-minus mutant: possible contribution of a single nucleotide in the precore region. J Virol 67, 5402–5410.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Liang, T. J., Hasegawa, K., Rimon, N., Wands, J. R. & Ben-Porath, E. ( 1991; ). A hepatitis B virus mutant associated with an epidemic of fulminant hepatitis. N Engl J Med 324, 1705–1709.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Lindh, M., Andersson, A. S. & Gusdal, A. ( 1997; ). Genotypes, nt 1858 variants, and geographic origin of hepatitis B virus – large-scale analysis using a new genotyping method. J Infect Dis 175, 1285–1293.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Loriot, M. A., Marcellin, P., Talbodec, N., Guigonis, V., Gigou, M., Boyer, N., Bezeaud, A., Erlinger, S. & Benhamou, J. P. ( 1995; ). Low frequency of precore hepatitis B virus mutants in anti-hepatitis B e-positive reactivation after loss of hepatitis B e antigen in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology 21, 627–631.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Magnius, L. O. & Norder, H. ( 1995; ). Subtypes, genotypes and molecular epidemiology of the hepatitis B virus as reflected by sequence variability of the S-gene. Intervirology 38, 24–34.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Mayerat, C., Mantegani, A. & Frei, C. ( 1999; ). Does hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype influence the clinical outcome of HBV infection? J Viral Hepat 6, 299–304.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Mizokami, M., Nakano, T., Orito, E., Tanaka, Y., Sakugawa, H., Mukaide, M. & Robertson, B. H. ( 1999; ). Hepatitis B virus genotype assignment using restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns. FEBS Lett 450, 66–71.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Nassal, M. & Rieger, A. ( 1996; ). A bulged region of the hepatitis B virus RNA encapsidation signal contains the replication origin for discontinuous first-strand DNA synthesis. J Virol 70, 2764–2773.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Noppornpanth, S., Haagmans, B. L., Bhattarakosol, P., Ratanakorn, P., Niesters, H. G., Osterhaus, A. D. & Poovorawan, Y. ( 2003; ). Molecular epidemiology of gibbon hepatitis B virus transmission. J Gen Virol 84, 147–155.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Norder, H., Courouce, A. M. & Magnius, L. O. ( 1994; ). Complete genomes, phylogenetic relatedness, and structural proteins of six strains of the hepatitis B virus, four of which represent two new genotypes. Virology 198, 489–503.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Okamoto, H., Imai, M., Tsuda, F., Tanaka, T., Miyakawa, Y. & Mayumi, M. ( 1987; ). Point mutation in the S gene of hepatitis B virus for a d/y or w/r subtypic change in two blood donors carrying a surface antigen of compound subtype adyr or adwr. J Virol 61, 3030–3034.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Okamoto, H., Tsuda, F., Sakugawa, H., Sastrosoewignjo, R. I., Imai, M., Miyakawa, Y. & Mayumi, M. ( 1988; ). Typing hepatitis B virus by homology in nucleotide sequence: comparison of surface antigen subtypes. J Gen Virol 69, 2575–2583.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Okamoto, H., Yotsumoto, S., Akahane, Y. & 7 other authors ( 1990; ). Hepatitis B viruses with precore region defects prevail in persistently infected hosts along with seroconversion to the antibody against e antigen. J Virol 64, 1298–1303.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Olweny, C. L. ( 1984; ). Etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in Africa. IARC Sci Publ 63, 89–95.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Omata, M., Ehata, T., Yokosuka, O., Hosoda, K. & Ohto, M. ( 1991; ). Mutations in the precore region of hepatitis B virus DNA in patients with fulminant and severe hepatitis. N Engl J Med 324, 1699–1704.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Orito, E., Mizokami, M., Sakugawa, H., Michitaka, K., Ishikawa, K., Ichida, T., Okanoue, T., Yotsuyanagi, H. & Iino, S. ( 2001; ). A case-control study for clinical and molecular biological differences between hepatitis B viruses of genotypes B and C. Japan HBV Genotype Research Group. Hepatology 33, 218–223.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Owiredu, W. K., Kramvis, A. & Kew, M. C. ( 2001; ). Hepatitis B virus DNA in serum of healthy black African adults positive for hepatitis B surface antibody alone: possible association with recombination between genotypes A and D. J Med Virol 64, 441–454.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Rieger, A. & Nassal, M. ( 1995; ). Distinct requirements for primary sequence in the 5′- and 3′-part of a bulge in the hepatitis B virus RNA encapsidation signal revealed by a combined in vivo selection/in vitro amplification system. Nucleic Acids Res 23, 3909–3915.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Saitou, N. & Nei, M. ( 1987; ). The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4, 406–425.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Santantonio, T., Jung, M. C., Miska, S., Pastore, G., Pape, G. R. & Will, H. ( 1991; ). Prevalence and type of pre-C HBV mutants in anti-HBe positive carriers with chronic liver disease in a highly endemic area. Virology 183, 840–844.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Sato, S., Suzuki, K., Akahane, Y. & 8 other authors ( 1995; ). Hepatitis B virus strains with mutations in the core promoter in patients with fulminant hepatitis. Ann Intern Med 122, 241–248.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Stuyver, L., De Gendt, S., Van Geyt, C., Zoulim, F., Fried, M., Schinazi, R. F. & Rossau, R. ( 2000; ). A new genotype of hepatitis B virus: complete genome and phylogenetic relatedness. J Gen Virol 81, 67–74.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Sugauchi, F., Mizokami, M., Orito, E. & 7 other authors ( 2001; ). A novel variant genotype C of hepatitis B virus identified in isolates from Australian Aborigines: complete genome sequence and phylogenetic relatedness. J Gen Virol 82, 883–892.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Sugauchi, F., Chutaputti, A., Orito, E., Kato, H., Suzuki, S., Ueda, R. & Mizokami, M. ( 2002a; ). Hepatitis B virus genotypes and clinical manifestation among hepatitis B carriers in Thailand. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 17, 671–676.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Sugauchi, F., Orito, E., Ichida, T. & 9 other authors ( 2002b; ). Hepatitis B virus of genotype B with or without recombination with genotype C over the precore region plus the core gene. J Virol 76, 5985–5992.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Sugauchi, F., Orito, E., Kato, H. & 8 other authors ( 2003a; ). Genotype, serotype, and phylogenetic characterization of the complete genome sequence of hepatitis B virus isolates from Malawian chronic carriers of the virus. J Med Virol 69, 33–40.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Sugauchi, F., Orito, E., Sakugawa, H. & 7 other authors ( 2003b; ). Epidemiologic and virologic characteristics of hepatitis B virus genotype B having the recombination with genotype C. Gastroenterology 124, 925–932.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Takahashi, K., Akahane, Y., Hino, K., Ohta, Y. & Mishiro, S. ( 1998; ). Hepatitis B virus genomic sequence in the circulation of hepatocellular carcinoma patients: comparative analysis of 40 full-length isolates. Arch Virol 143, 2313–2326.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Thompson, J. D., Higgins, D. G. & Gibson, T. J. ( 1994; ). clustal w: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res 22, 4673–4680.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Tran, A., Kremsdorf, D., Capel, F., Housset, C., Dauguet, C., Petit, M. A. & Brechot, C. ( 1991; ). Emergence of and takeover by hepatitis B virus (HBV) with rearrangements in the pre-S/S and pre-C/C genes during chronic HBV infection. J Virol 65, 3566–3574.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Usuda, S., Okamoto, H., Iwanari, H., Baba, K., Tsuda, F., Miyakawa, Y. & Mayumi, M. ( 1999; ). Serological detection of hepatitis B virus genotypes by ELISA with monoclonal antibodies to type-specific epitopes in the preS2-region product. J Virol Methods 80, 97–112.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Usuda, S., Okamoto, H., Tanaka, T., Kidd-Ljunggren, K., Holland, P. V., Miyakawa, Y. & Mayumi, M. ( 2000; ). Differentiation of hepatitis B virus genotypes D and E by ELISA using monoclonal antibodies to epitopes on the preS2-region product. J Virol Methods 87, 81–89.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Valliammai, T., Thyagarajan, S. P., Zuckerman, A. J. & Harrison, T. J. ( 1995; ). Precore and core mutations in HBV from individuals in India with chronic infection. J Med Virol 45, 321–325.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Wai, C. T., Chu, C. J., Hussain, M. & Lok, A. S. ( 2002; ). HBV genotype B is associated with better response to interferon therapy in HBeAg(+) chronic hepatitis than genotype C. Hepatology 36, 1425–1430.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.79811-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.79811-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error