1887

Abstract

Vaccination with live attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmacC8) confers potent, reproducible protection against homologous wild-type virus challenge (SIVmacJ5). The ability of SIVmacC8 to confer resistance to superinfection with an uncloned derivative of SIVmac251 (SIVmac32H/L28) was investigated. In naïve, Mauritian-derived cynomolgus macaques (), SIVmac32H/L28 replicated to high peak titres (>10 SIV RNA copies ml), persisted at high levels and induced distinctive pathology in lymphoid tissues. In cynomolgus macaques vaccinated with SIVmacC8, no evidence of detectable superinfection was observed in 3/8 vaccinates following challenge 3 or 20 weeks later with SIVmac32H/L28. Analyses after SIVmac32H/L28 challenge revealed a significant reduction in viral RNA (<0.001) and DNA levels between 20 week vaccinates and challenge controls. Amongst 3 week vaccinates, less potent protection was observed. However, analysis of from breakthrough virus indicated >99 % sequence similarity with the vaccine virus. Highly sensitive PCR assays that distinguish vaccine and challenge virus stocks demonstrated restimulation of replication of the vaccine virus SIVmacC8 in the face of potent protection against a vigorous, homologous challenge virus. Vaccine-induced antiviral neutralizing antibodies and anti-Nef CD8 cytotoxic T cell responses did not correlate with the outcome of the challenge. Defining the mechanism of vaccine protection will need to account for the effective control of a genetically closely related challenge virus whilst remaining unable to suppress replication of the pre-existing vaccine virus. The role of innate and intrinsic anti-retroviral immunity in the protection conferred by live attenuated SIV vaccines warrants careful study.

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2008-09-01
2019-11-17
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