1887

Abstract

The early inflammatory response to a virus may be critical in restricting infection and in shaping the subsequent adaptive immune response. In this study we have examined the early inflammatory response of mice following infection with vaccinia virus (VV) strain Western Reserve (WR). Respiratory challenge of BALB/c mice with VV led to early virus replication in the lung and upper respiratory tract followed by dissemination of virus to other visceral organs and to the brain. The number of inflammatory cells, largely macrophages and T lymphocytes, recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid increased markedly during infection and coincided with the expression of CC chemokine ligands (CCL) 3, 2 and 11 and CXC chemokine ligands (CXCL) 1 and 2/3 in BAL. The peak of the inflammatory response occurred around day 10 and declined thereafter. The antiviral cytokines IFN- and TNF-, and the reactive nitrogen intermediate nitric oxide (NO), were also detected in BAL from VV-infected mice. A markedly different inflammatory response was observed after intradermal inoculation of WR into the ear pinnae of mice. Intradermal challenge was followed by highly localized virus replication and by a cellular influx, consisting largely of neutrophils and T lymphocytes, into the dermal compartment of the infected ear. Together these findings highlight differences in the pathogenesis and in the cellular inflammatory response to WR following intranasal and intradermal inoculation of mice.

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2003-08-01
2019-10-16
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