1887

Abstract

Two sequences required for activity of the Epstein–Barr virus BART RNA promoter in transfection assays have been identified by site-directed mutagenesis. One contains a consensus AP-1 site; the other has some similarity to Ets and Stat consensus binding sites. Candidate sequences were suggested by mapping a region of unmethylated DNA in EBV around the BART promoter followed by footprinting the promoter in the C666-1 nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line, which expresses BART RNAs. The data are presented in the context of a revised EBV DNA sequence, known as EBV wt, that is proposed as a future standard sequence for EBV.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.19054-0
2003-06-01
2021-10-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/84/6/vir841443.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.19054-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Baer R., Bankier A. T., Biggin M. D. 9 other authors 1984; DNA sequence and expression of the B95-8 Epstein–Barr virus genome. Nature 310:207–211
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Brooks L. A., Lear A. L., Young L. S., Rickinson A. B. 1993; Transcripts from the Epstein–Barr virus Bam HI A fragment are detectable in all three forms of virus latency. J Virol 67:3182–3190
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Busson P., Ganem G., Flores P. 7 other authors 1988; Establishment and characterization of three transplantable EBV-containing nasopharyngeal carcinomas. Int J Cancer 42:599–606
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Chen H. L., Lung M. M., Sham J. S., Choy D. T., Griffin B. E., Ng M. H. 1992; Transcription of Bam HI-A region of the EBV genome in NPC tissues and B cells. Virology 191:193–201
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Chen H., Smith P., Ambinder R. F., Hayward S. D. 1999; Expression of Epstein–Barr virus Bam HI-A rightward transcripts in latently infected B cells from peripheral blood. Blood 93:3026–3032
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Chen H., Lee J. M., Zong Y., Borowitz M., Ng M. H., Ambinder R. F., Hayward S. D. 2001; Linkage between STAT regulation and Epstein–Barr virus gene expression in tumors. J Virol 75:2929–2937
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Cheung S. T., Huang D. P., Hui A. B., Lo K. W., Ko C. W., Tsang Y. S., Wong N., Whitney B. M., Lee J. C. 1999; Nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line (C666-1) consistently harbouring Epstein–Barr virus. Int J Cancer 83:121–126
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Farrell P. J. 1989; The Epstein–Barr virus genome. Adv Viral Oncology 8:103–132
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Gardella T., Medveczky P., Sairenji T., Mulder C. 1984; Detection of circular and linear herpesvirus DNA molecules in mammalian cells by gel electrophoresis. J Virol 50:248–254
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Gilligan K., Sato H., Rajadurai P., Busson P., Young L., Rickinson A., Tursz T., Raab-Traub N. 1990; Novel transcription from the Epstein–Barr virus terminal Eco RI fragment, DIJhet, in a nasopharyngeal carcinoma. J Virol 64:4948–4956
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Gilligan K. J., Rajadurai P., Lin J. C., Busson P., Abdel-Hamid M., Prasad U., Tursz T., Raab-Traub N. 1991; Expression of the Epstein–Barr virus Bam HI A fragment in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: evidence for a viral protein expressed in vivo. J Virol 65:6252–6259
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Griffin B. E., Xue S. A. 1998; Epstein–Barr virus infections and their association with human malignancies: some key questions. Ann Med 30:249–259
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Heinemeyer T., Wingender E., Reuter I. 9 other authors 1998; Databases on transcriptional regulation: transfac, trrd and compel. Nucleic Acids Res 26:362–367
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Hitt M. M., Allday M. J., Hara T., Karran L., Jones M. D., Busson P., Tursz T., Ernberg I., Griffin B. E. 1989; EBV gene expression in an NPC-related tumour. EMBO J 8:2639–2651
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Karran L., Gao Y., Smith P. R., Griffin B. E. 1992; Expression of a family of complementary-strand transcripts in Epstein–Barr virus-infected cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89:8058–8062
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Kienzle N., Sculley T. B., Poulsen L., Buck M., Cross S., Raab-Traub N., Khanna R. 1998; Identification of a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response to the novel BARF0 protein of Epstein–Barr virus: a critical role for antigen expression. J Virol 72:6614–6620
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Kirch H. C., Flaswinkel S., Rumpf H., Brockmann D., Esche H. 1999; Expression of human p53 requires synergistic activation of transcription from the p53 promoter by AP-1, NF-kappaB and Myc/Max. Oncogene 18:2728–2738
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Kusano S., Raab-Traub N. 2001; An Epstein–Barr virus protein interacts with Notch. J Virol 75:384–395
    [Google Scholar]
  19. LaMarco K., Thompson C. C., Byers B. P., Walton E. M., McKnight S. L. 1991; Identification of Ets- and notch-related subunits in GA binding protein. Science 253:789–792
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Niller H. H., Salamon D., Uhlig J., Ranf S., Granz M., Schwarzmann F., Wolf H., Minarovits J. 2002; Nucleoprotein structure of immediate-early promoters Zp and Rp and of oriLyt of latent Epstein–Barr virus genomes. J Virol 76:4113–4118
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Raab-Traub N., Rajadurai P., Flynn K., Lanier A. P. 1991; Epstein–Barr virus infection in carcinoma of the salivary gland. J Virol 65:7032–7036
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Risse G., Jooss K., Neuberg M., Bruller H. J., Muller R. 1989; Asymmetrical recognition of the palindromic AP1 binding site (TRE) by Fos protein complexes. EMBO J 8:3825–32
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Robertson K. D., Manns A., Swinnen L. J., Zong J. C., Gulley M. L., Ambinder R. F. 1996; CpG methylation of the major Epstein–Barr virus latency promoter in Burkitt's lymphoma and Hodgkin's disease. Blood 88:3129–3136
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Sadler R. H., Raab-Traub N. 1995; Structural analyses of the Epstein–Barr virus Bam HI A transcripts. J Virol 69:1132–1141
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Salamon D., Takacs M., Ujvari D., Uhlig J., Wolf H., Minarovits J., Niller H. H. 2001; Protein–DNA binding and CpG methylation at nucleotide resolution of latency-associated promoters Qp, Cp, and LMP1p of Epstein–Barr virus. J Virol 75:2584–2596
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Smith P., de Jesus O., Turner D., Hollyoake M., Elgueta Karstegl C., Griffin B., Karran L., Wang Y., Hayward S., Farrell P. 2000; Structure and coding content of CST (BART) family RNAs of Epstein–Barr virus. J Virol 74:3082–3092
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Spender L. C., Cornish G. H., Rowland B., Kempkes B., Farrell P. J. 2001; Direct and indirect regulation of cytokine and cell cycle proteins by EBNA-2 during Epstein–Barr virus infection. J Virol 75:3537–3546
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Sugiura M., Imai S., Tokunaga M., Koizumi S., Uchizawa M., Okamoto K., Osato T. 1996; Transcriptional analysis of Epstein–Barr virus gene expression in EBV-positive gastric carcinoma: unique viral latency in the tumour cells. Br J Cancer 74:625–631
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Virbasius J. V., Virbasius C. A., Scarpulla R. C. 1993; Identity of GABP with NRF-2, a multisubunit activator of cytochrome oxidase expression, reveals a cellular role for an ETS domain activator of viral promoters. Genes Dev 7:380–392
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Wensing B., Stuhler A., Jenkins P., Hollyoake M., Karstegl C. E., Farrell P. J. 2001; Variant chromatin structure of the oriP region of Epstein–Barr virus and regulation of EBER1 expression by upstream sequences and oriP. J Virol 75:6235–6241
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Zhang C. X., Lowrey P., Finerty S., Morgan A. J. 1993; Analysis of Epstein–Barr virus gene transcription in lymphoma induced by the virus in the cottontop tamarin by construction of a cDNA library with RNA extracted from a tumour biopsy. J Gen Virol 74:509–514
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Zhang J., Chen H., Weinmaster G., Hayward S. D. 2001; Epstein–Barr virus Bam HI-A rightward transcript-encoded RPMS protein interacts with the CBF1-associated corepressor CIR to negatively regulate the activity of EBNA2 and NotchIC. J Virol 75:2946–2956
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.19054-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.19054-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error