1887

Abstract

A new simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) chimera with the reverse transcriptase (RT)-encoding region of , in addition to the 3′ region encoding , , , , and of HIV-1, on an SIV (SIV from a macaque monkey) background was constructed. This new SHIV chimera, named SHIVrt/3rn, could replicate in monkey peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as well as in the human and monkey CD4 T-cell lines M8166 and HSC-F. Since SHIVrt/3rn contains the RT gene of HIV-1, replication of the virus in M8166 cells was inhibited by an HIV-1-specific non-nucleoside RT inhibitor, MKC-442, with a sensitivity similar to that of HIV-1. To investigate the replication competence of SHIVrt/3rn , two rhesus monkeys were inoculated intravenously with the virus. At 2 to 4 weeks post-inoculation (p.i.), plasma viral RNA loads of both monkeys showed a peak value of more than 10 copies ml. Infectious virus was isolated from the PBMCs of one monkey at 2 and 3 weeks p.i. and from the other at 4 weeks p.i. Moreover, proviral DNA was detected constantly throughout the observation period, starting from 3 weeks p.i. An antibody response, detected first at 3 weeks p.i., was maintained at high titres. These results indicate that SHIVrt/3rn can infect and replicate . SHIVrt/3rn, having part of HIV-1 in addition to the 3′ part of the HIV-1 genome is genetically more close to HIV-1 than any of the other monkey-infecting SHIVs reported previously.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.18843-0
2003-07-01
2020-01-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/84/7/vir841663.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.18843-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Adachi, A., Gendelman, H. E., Koenig, S., Folks, T., Willey, R., Rabson, A. & Martin, M. A. ( 1986; ). Production of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated retrovirus in human and nonhuman cells transfected with an infectious molecular clone. J Virol 59, 284–291.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Akari, H., Mori, K., Terao, K., Otani, I., Fukasawa, M., Mukai, R. & Yoshikawa, Y. ( 1996; ). In vitro immortalization of Old World monkey T lymphocytes with herpesvirus saimiri: susceptibility to infection with simian immunodeficiency viruses. Virology 218, 382–388.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Baba, M., Shigeta, S., Yuasa, S. & 7 other authors ( 1994; ). Preclinical evaluation of MKC-442, a highly potent and specific inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 38, 688–692.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bogers, W. M., Dubbes, R., ten Haaft, P. & 12 other authors ( 1997; ). Comparison of in vitro and in vivo infectivity of different clade B HIV-1 envelope chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency viruses in Macaca mulatta. Virology 236, 110–117.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Clapham, P. R., Weiss, R. A., Dalgleish, A. G., Exley, M., Whitby, D. & Hogg, N. ( 1987; ). Human immunodeficiency virus infection of monocytic and T-lymphocytic cells: receptor modulation and differentiation induced by phorbol ester. Virology 158, 44–51.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Daniel, M. D., Kirchhoff, F., Czajak, S. C., Sehgal, P. K. & Desrosiers, R. C. ( 1992; ). Protective effects of a live attenuated SIV vaccine with a deletion in the nef gene. Science 258, 1938–1941.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Fultz, P. N., McClure, H. M., Daugharty, H., Brodie, A., McGrath, C. R., Swenson, B. & Francis, D. P. ( 1986; ). Vaginal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to a chimpanzee. J Infect Dis 154, 896–900.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Gajdusek, D. C., Amyx, H. L., Gibbs, C. J., Jr & 7 other authors ( 1985; ). Infection of chimpanzees by human T-lymphotropic retroviruses in brain and other tissues from AIDS patients. Lancet i, 55–56.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Harouse, J. M., Gettie, A., Tan, R. C., Blanchard, J. & Cheng-Mayer, C. ( 1999; ). Distinct pathogenic sequela in rhesus macaques infected with CCR5 or CXCR4 utilizing SHIVs. Science 284, 816–819.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Hayami, M., Igarashi, T., Kuwata, T., Ui, M., Haga, T., Ami, Y., Shinohara, K. & Honda, M. ( 1999; ). Gene-mutated HIV-1/SIV chimeric viruses as AIDS live attenuated vaccines for potential human use. Leukemia 13 (Suppl. 1), S42–S47.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Igarashi, T., Shibata, R., Hasebe, F. & 7 other authors ( 1994; ). Persistent infection with SIVmac chimeric virus having tat, rev, vpu, env and nef of HIV type 1 in macaque monkeys. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 10, 1021–1029.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Igarashi, T., Kuwata, T., Takehisa, J. & 7 other authors ( 1996; ). Genomic and biological alteration of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-simian immunodeficiency virus strain mac chimera, with HIV-1 Env, recovered from a long-term carrier monkey. J Gen Virol 77, 1649–1658.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Joag, S. V., Li, Z., Foresman, L., Stephens, E. B., Zhao, L. J., Adany, I., Pinson, D. M., McClure, H. M. & Narayan, O. ( 1996; ). Chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus that causes progressive loss of CD4+ T cells and AIDS in pig-tailed macaques. J Virol 70, 3189–3197.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Joag, S. V., Li, Z., Foresman, L. & 10 other authors ( 1997; ). Characterization of the pathogenic KU-SHIV model of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in macaques. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 13, 635–645.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Kestler, H. W. D., III, Ringler, D. J., Mori, K., Panicali, D. L., Sehgal, P. K., Daniel, M. D. & Desrosiers, R. C. ( 1991; ). Importance of the nef gene for maintenance of high virus loads and for development of AIDS. Cell 65, 651–662.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Kozyrev, I. L., Miura, T., Takemura, T., Kuwata, T., Ui, M., Ibuki, K., Iida, T. & Hayami, M. ( 2002; ). Co-expression of interleukin-5 influences replication of simian/human immunodeficiency viruses in vivo. J Gen Virol 83, 1183–1188.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Kuwata, T., Igarashi, T., Ido, E., Jin, M., Mizuno, A., Chen, J. & Hayami, M. ( 1995; ). Construction of human immunodeficiency virus 1/simian immunodeficiency virus strain mac chimeric viruses having vpr and/or nef of different parental origins and their in vitro and in vivo replication. J Gen Virol 76, 2181–2191.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Letvin, N. L., Daniel, M. D., Sehgal, P. K. & 7 other authors ( 1985; ). Induction of AIDS-like disease in macaque monkeys with T-cell tropic retrovirus STLV-III. Science 230, 71–73.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Li, J., Lord, C. I., Haseltine, W., Letvin, N. L. & Sodroski, J. ( 1992; ). Infection of cynomolgus monkeys with a chimeric HIV-1/SIVmac virus that expresses the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 5, 639–646.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Naidu, Y. M., Kestler, H. W. D., III, Li, Y. & 8 other authors ( 1988; ). Characterization of infectious molecular clones of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac) and human immunodeficiency virus type 2: persistent infection of rhesus monkeys with molecularly cloned SIVmac. J Virol 62, 4691–4696.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Novembre, F. J., Saucier, M., Anderson, D. C. & 7 other authors ( 1997; ). Development of AIDS in a chimpanzee infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol 71, 4086–4091.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Pauwels, R., Balzarini, J., Baba, M., Snoeck, R., Schols, D., Herdewijn, P., Desmyter, J. & De Clercq, E. ( 1988; ). Rapid and automated tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay for the detection of anti-HIV compounds. J Virol Methods 20, 309–321.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Reimann, K. A., Li, J. T., Veazey, R., Halloran, M., Park, I. W., Karlsson, G. B., Sodroski, J. & Letvin, N. L. ( 1996; ). A chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus expressing a primary patient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolate env causes an AIDS-like disease after in vivo passage in rhesus monkeys. J Virol 70, 6922–6928.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Shibata, R., Kawamura, M., Sakai, H., Hayami, M., Ishimoto, A. & Adachi, A. ( 1991; ). Generation of a chimeric human and simian immunodeficiency virus infectious to monkey peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Virol 65, 3514–3520.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Überla, K., Stahl-Hennig, C., Bottiger, D. & 7 other authors ( 1995; ). Animal model for the therapy of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92, 8210–8214.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Ui, M., Kuwata, T., Igarashi, T. & 9 other authors ( 1999; ). Protection of macaques against a SHIV with a homologous HIV-1 Env and a pathogenic SHIV-89.6P with a heterologous Env by vaccination with multiple gene-deleted SHIVs. Virology 265, 252–263.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Veazey, R. S., DeMaria, M., Chalifoux, L. V. & 7 other authors ( 1998; ). Gastrointestinal tract as a major site of CD4+ T cell depletion and viral replication in SIV infection. Science 280, 427–431.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Willey, R. L., Smith, D. H., Lasky, L. A., Theodore, T. S., Earl, P. L., Moss, B., Capon, D. J. & Martin, M. A. ( 1988; ). In vitro mutagenesis identifies a region within the envelope gene of the human immunodeficiency virus that is critical for infectivity. J Virol 62, 139–147.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Yuasa, S., Sadakata, Y., Takashima, H., Sekiya, K., Inouye, N., Ubasawa, M. & Baba, M. ( 1993; ). Selective and synergistic inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase by a non-nucleoside inhibitor, MKC-442. Mol Pharmacol 44, 895–900.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.18843-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.18843-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited articles

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error