1887

Abstract

In recent years, it has been shown that some parvoviruses exhibit high substitution rates, close to those of RNA viruses. In order to monitor and determine new mutations in porcine parvovirus (PPV), recent PPV field isolates from Austria, Brazil, Germany and Switzerland were sequenced and analysed. These samples, together with sequences retrieved from GenBank, were included in three datasets, consisting of the complete NS1 and VP1 genes and a partial VP1 gene. For each dataset, the nucleotide substitution rate and the molecular clock were determined. Analysis of the PPV field isolates revealed that a recently described amino acid substitution, S436T, appeared to be common in the VP2 protein in the Austrian, Brazilian and German virus populations. Furthermore, new amino acid substitutions were identified, located mainly in the viral capsid loops. By inferring the evolutionary dynamics of the PPV sequences, nucleotide substitution rates of approximately 10 substitutions per site per year for the non-structural protein gene and 10 substitutions per site per year for the capsid protein gene (for both viral protein datasets) were found. The latter rate is similar to those commonly found in RNA viruses. An association of the phylogenetic tree with the molecular clock analysis revealed that the mutations on which the divergence for both capsid proteins was based occurred in the past 30 years. Based on these findings, it was concluded that PPV variants are continuously evolving and that vaccines, which are based mainly on strains isolated about 30 years ago, should perhaps be updated.

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2011-11-01
2019-10-13
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