1887

Abstract

Cellular factors that bind to sequences in the human papillomavirus 16 (HPV-16) upstream regulatory region (URR) positively and negatively regulate the viral E6 and E7 oncogene promoter, P97. DNase I footprinting has revealed the binding of cellular proteins to two previously undetected elements overlapping and 3′ of the transcription-initiation site of the P97 promoter. Mutations within homologous motifs found in both of these elements abolished their negative function and the binding of the same cellular complex . This factor was identified as YY1 by complex mobility and binding specificity in comparison with vaccinia virus-expressed, purified recombinant YY1 protein and by antigenic reactivity with YY1 antisera. mutations in the ‘initiator’ YY1 site activated the P97 promoter and . P97 was also activated threefold by depletion of endogenous YY1 with wild-type, but not mutant, YY1 oligonucleotides from the IgH kappa E3′ enhancer. Furthermore, increasing concentrations of exogenous, purified recombinant YY1 repressed wild-type P97 transcript levels by up to threefold, but did not influence the P97 promoter mutated in the ‘initiator’ YY1 site. Thus, the promoter-proximal YY1 site was not necessary for correct transcription initiation at the P97 promoter, but was found to be required for downregulation of P97 transcription and . In contrast to other viral and cellular promoters, where YY1 is thought to function as a positive transcription-‘initiator’ factor, HPV-16 P97 transcription is downregulated by YY1 from a critical motif overlapping the transcription start site.

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2009-10-01
2019-11-14
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