1887

Abstract

Diarrhoea is considered to be the second leading cause of death due to infections among children  < 5 years of age worldwide that may be caused by bacteria, parasites, viruses and non-infectious agents. The major causative agents of diarrhoea in developing countries may vary from those in developed countries. Noroviruses are considered to be the most common cause of acute diarrhoea in both children and adults in industrialized countries. On the other hand, there is a lack of comprehensive epidemiological evidence from developing countries that norovirus is a major cause of diarrhoea. In these regions, asymptomatic norovirus infections are very common, and similar detection rates have been observed in patients with diarrhoea and asymptomatic persons. This review summarizes the current knowledge of norovirus infection in developing countries and seeks to position infections with noroviruses among those of other enteropathogens in terms of disease burden in these regions.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.000194
2015-08-01
2019-12-11
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/96/8/1983.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.000194&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Abugalia M. , Cuevas L. , Kirby A. , Dove W. , Nakagomi O. , Nakagomi T. , Kara M. , Gweder R. , Smeo M. , Cunliffe N. . ( 2011;). Clinical features and molecular epidemiology of rotavirus and norovirus infections in Libyan children. J Med Virol 83: 1849–1856 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Agus S.G. , Falchuk Z.M. , Sessoms C.S. , Wyatt R.G. , Dolin R. . ( 1974;). Increased jejunal IgA synthesis in vitro during acute infectious nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Am J Dig Dis 19: 127–131 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Ahmed S.M. , Hall A.J. , Robinson A.E. , Verhoef L. , Premkumar P. , Parashar U.D. , Koopmans M. , Lopman B.A. . ( 2014;). Global prevalence of norovirus in cases of gastroenteritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 14: 725–730 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Albert M.J. , Faruque A.S. , Faruque S.M. , Sack R.B. , Mahalanabis D. . ( 1999;). Case-control study of enteropathogens associated with childhood diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh. J Clin Microbiol 37: 3458–3464 [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Ambert-Balay K. , Pothier P. . ( 2013;). Evaluation of 4 immunochromatographic tests for rapid detection of norovirus in faecal samples. J Clin Virol 56: 194–198 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Arias A. , Emmott E. , Vashist S. , Goodfellow I. . ( 2013;). Progress towards the prevention and treatment of norovirus infections. Future Microbiol 8: 1475–1487 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Armah G.E. , Gallimore C.I. , Binka F.N. , Asmah R.H. , Green J. , Ugoji U. , Anto F. , Brown D.W. , Gray J.J. . ( 2006;). Characterisation of norovirus strains in rural Ghanaian children with acute diarrhoea. J Med Virol 78: 1480–1485 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Arvelo W. , Sosa S.M. , Juliao P. , López M.R. , Estevéz A. , López B. , Morales-Betoulle M.E. , González M. , Gregoricus N.A. , other authors . ( 2012;). Norovirus outbreak of probable waterborne transmission with high attack rate in a Guatemalan resort. J Clin Virol 55: 8–11 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Atmar R.L. , Opekun A.R. , Estes M.K. , Graham D.Y. . ( 2015;). Reply to Kirby et al.. J Infect Dis 211: 167 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Ayukekbong J. , Lindh M. , Nenonen N. , Tah F. , Nkuo-Akenji T. , Bergström T. . ( 2011;). Enteric viruses in healthy children in Cameroon: viral load and genotyping of norovirus strains. J Med Virol 83: 2135–2142 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Ayukekbong J.A. , Andersson M.E. , Vansarla G. , Tah F. , Nkuo-Akenji T. , Lindh M. , Bergström T. . ( 2013;). Monitoring of seasonality of norovirus and other enteric viruses in Cameroon by real-time PCR: an exploratory study. Epidemiol Infect 142: 1393–1402 [PubMed].[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Ayukekbong J.A. , Andersson M.E. , Vansarla G. , Tah F. , Nkuo-Akenji T. , Lindh M. , Bergström T. . ( 2014a;). Monitoring of seasonality of norovirus and other enteric viruses in Cameroon by real-time PCR: an exploratory study. Epidemiol Infect 142: 1393–1402 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Ayukekbong J.A. , Fobisong C. , Tah F. , Lindh M. , Nkuo-Akenji T. , Bergström T. . ( 2014b;). Pattern of circulation of norovirus GII strains during natural infection. J Clin Microbiol 52: 4253–4259 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Baert L. , Mattison K. , Loisy-Hamon F. , Harlow J. , Martyres A. , Lebeau B. , Stals A. , Van Coillie E. , Herman L. , Uyttendaele M. . ( 2011;). Review: norovirus prevalence in Belgian, Canadian and French fresh produce: a threat to human health?. Int J Food Microbiol 151: 261–269 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Barreira D.M. , Ferreira M.S. , Fumian T.M. , Checon R. , de Sadovsky A.D. , Leite J.P. , Miagostovich M.P. , Spano L.C. . ( 2010;). Viral load and genotypes of noroviruses in symptomatic and asymptomatic children in Southeastern Brazil. J Clin Virol 47: 60–64 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Bartsch S.M. , Lopman B.A. , Hall A.J. , Parashar U.D. , Lee B.Y. . ( 2012;). The potential economic value of a human norovirus vaccine for the United States. Vaccine 30: 7097–7104 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Bellou M. , Kokkinos P. , Vantarakis A. . ( 2013;). Shellfish-borne viral outbreaks: a systematic review. Food Environ Virol 5: 13–23 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Bernstein D.I. , Atmar R.L. , Lyon G.M. , Treanor J.J. , Chen W.H. , Jiang X. , Vinjé J. , Gregoricus N. , Frenck R.W. Jr , other authors . ( 2015;). Norovirus vaccine against experimental human GII.4 virus illness: a challenge study in healthy adults. J Infect Dis 211: 870–878 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Blutt S.E. , Conner M.E. . ( 2013;). The gastrointestinal frontier: IgA and viruses. Front Immunol 4: 402 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Bobo L.D. , Dubberke E.R. . ( 2010;). Recognition and prevention of hospital-associated enteric infections in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med 38: (Suppl.), S324–S334 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Bonkoungou I.J. , Haukka K. , Österblad M. , Hakanen A.J. , Traoré A.S. , Barro N. , Siitonen A. . ( 2013;). Bacterial and viral etiology of childhood diarrhea in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. BMC Pediatr 13: 36 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Boone S.A. , Gerba C.P. . ( 2007;). Significance of fomites in the spread of respiratory and enteric viral disease. Appl Environ Microbiol 73: 1687–1696 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Bosch A. . ( 1998;). Human enteric viruses in the water environment: a minireview. Int Microbiol 1: 191–196 [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Bosch A. , Guix S. , Sano D. , Pintó R.M. . ( 2008;). New tools for the study and direct surveillance of viral pathogens in water. Curr Opin Biotechnol 19: 295–301 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Boschi-Pinto C. , Velebit L. , Shibuya K. . ( 2008;). Estimating child mortality due to diarrhoea in developing countries. Bull World Health Organ 86: 710–717 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Bruggink L.D. , Dunbar N.L. , Marshall J.A. . ( 2015;). Norovirus genotype diversity in community-based sporadic gastroenteritis incidents: A five-year study. J Med Virol 87: 961–969 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Bryce J. , Boschi-Pinto C. , Shibuya K. , Black R.E. , Group W.H.O.C.H.E.R. , WHO Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group . ( 2005;). WHO estimates of the causes of death in children. Lancet 365: 1147–1152 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Bucardo F. , Nordgren J. , Carlsson B. , Paniagua M. , Lindgren P.E. , Espinoza F. , Svensson L. . ( 2008;). Pediatric norovirus diarrhea in Nicaragua. J Clin Microbiol 46: 2573–2580 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Bucardo F. , Nordgren J. , Carlsson B. , Kindberg E. , Paniagua M. , Möllby R. , Svensson L. . ( 2010;). Asymptomatic norovirus infections in Nicaraguan children and its association with viral properties and histo-blood group antigens. Pediatr Infect Dis J 29: 934–939 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Bucardo F. , Reyes Y. , Svensson L. , Nordgren J. . ( 2014;). Predominance of norovirus and sapovirus in Nicaragua after implementation of universal rotavirus vaccination. PLoS One 9: e98201 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Bull R.A. , White P.A. . ( 2011;). Mechanisms of GII.4 norovirus evolution. Trends Microbiol 19: 233–240 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Bull R.A. , Eden J.S. , Rawlinson W.D. , White P.A. . ( 2010;). Rapid evolution of pandemic noroviruses of the GII.4 lineage. PLoS Pathog 6: e1000831 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Cakir B. , Pankow J.S. , Salomaa V. , Couper D. , Morris T.L. , Brantley K.R. , Hiller K.M. , Heiss G. , Weston B.W. . ( 2002;). Distribution of Lewis (FUT3) genotype and allele: frequencies in a biethnic United States population. Ann Hematol 81: 558–565 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Carlsson B. , Kindberg E. , Buesa J. , Rydell G.E. , Lidón M.F. , Montava R. , Abu Mallouh R. , Grahn A. , Rodríguez-Díaz J. , other authors . ( 2009;). The G428A nonsense mutation in FUT2 provides strong but not absolute protection against symptomatic GII.4 Norovirus infection. PLoS One 4: e5593 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ( 2009;). Norovirus outbreaks on three college campuses – California, Michigan, and Wisconsin, 2008. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 58: 1095–1100 [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Chadwick P.R. , McCann R. . ( 1994;). Transmission of a small round structured virus by vomiting during a hospital outbreak of gastroenteritis. J Hosp Infect 26: 251–259 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Chadwick P.R. , Walker M. , Rees A.E. . ( 1994;). Airborne transmission of a small round structured virus. Lancet 343: 171 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Chan W.K. , Lee K.W. , Fan T.W. . ( 2010;). Pneumatosis intestinalis in a child with nephrotic syndrome and norovirus gastroenteritis. Pediatr Nephrol 25: 1563–1566 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Chapman A.S. , Witkop C.T. , Escobar J.D. , Schlorman C.A. , DeMarcus L.S. , Marmer L.M. , Crum M.E. . ( 2011;). Norovirus outbreak associated with person-to-person transmission, U.S. Air Force Academy, July 2011. MSMR 18: 2–5 [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Choi J.M. , Hutson A.M. , Estes M.K. , Prasad B.V. . ( 2008;). Atomic resolution structural characterization of recognition of histo-blood group antigens by Norwalk virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105: 9175–9180 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Clark B. , McKendrick M. . ( 2004;). A review of viral gastroenteritis. Curr Opin Infect Dis 17: 461–469 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Colombatti R. , Vieira C.S. , Bassani F. , Cristofoli R. , Coin A. , Bertinato L. , Riccardi F. . ( 2009;). Contamination of drinking water sources during the rainy season in an urban post-conflict community in Guinea Bissau: implications for sanitation priority. Afr J Med Med Sci 38: 155–161 [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Corvelo T.C.O. , Aguiar D.C.F. , Sagica F.E.S. . ( 2002;). The expression of ABH and Lewis antigens in Brazilian semi-isolated Black communities. Genet Mol Biol 25: 259–263 [CrossRef].
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Cronin A.A. , Shrestha D. , Spiegel P. , Gore F. , Hering H. . ( 2009;). Quantifying the burden of disease associated with inadequate provision of water and sanitation in selected sub-Saharan refugee camps. J Water Health 7: 557–568 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Daughenbaugh K.F. , Fraser C.S. , Hershey J.W. , Hardy M.E. . ( 2003;). The genome-linked protein VPg of the Norwalk virus binds eIF3, suggesting its role in translation initiation complex recruitment. EMBO J 22: 2852–2859 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Desselberger U. , Goodfellow I. . ( 2014;). Noroviruses: a global cause of acute gastroenteritis. Lancet Infect Dis 14: 664–665 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Dolin R. , Levy A.G. , Wyatt R.G. , Thornhill T.S. , Gardner J.D. . ( 1975;). Viral gastroenteritis induced by the Hawaii agent. Jejunal histopathology and serologic response. Am J Med 59: 761–768 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Eden J.S. , Tanaka M.M. , Boni M.F. , Rawlinson W.D. , White P.A. . ( 2013;). Recombination within the pandemic norovirus GII.4 lineage. J Virol 87: 6270–6282 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Elfving K. , Andersson M. , Msellem M.I. , Welinder-Olsson C. , Petzold M. , Björkman A. , Trollfors B. , Mårtensson A. , Lindh M. . ( 2014;). Real-time PCR threshold cycle cutoffs help to identify agents causing acute childhood diarrhea in Zanzibar. J Clin Microbiol 52: 916–923 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Estes M.K. , Prasad B.V. , Atmar R.L. . ( 2006;). Noroviruses everywhere: has something changed?. Curr Opin Infect Dis 19: 467–474 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Fang H. , Tan M. , Xia M. , Wang L. , Jiang X. . ( 2013;). Norovirus P particle efficiently elicits innate, humoral and cellular immunity. PLoS One 8: e63269 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Fankhauser R.L. , Monroe S.S. , Noel J.S. , Humphrey C.D. , Bresee J.S. , Parashar U.D. , Ando T. , Glass R.I. . ( 2002;). Epidemiologic and molecular trends of “Norwalk-like” viruses associated with outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the United States. J Infect Dis 186: 1–7 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Friesema I.H. , Vennema H. , Heijne J.C. , de Jager C.M. , Morroy G. , van den Kerkhof J.H. , de Coster E.J. , Wolters B.A. , ter Waarbeek H.L. , other authors . ( 2009;). Norovirus outbreaks in nursing homes: the evaluation of infection control measures. Epidemiol Infect 137: 1722–1733 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Gallimore C.I. , Cubitt D. , du Plessis N. , Gray J.J. . ( 2004;). Asymptomatic and symptomatic excretion of noroviruses during a hospital outbreak of gastroenteritis. J Clin Microbiol 42: 2271–2274 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Gandhi K.M. , Mandrell R.E. , Tian P. . ( 2010;). Binding of virus-like particles of Norwalk virus to romaine lettuce veins. Appl Environ Microbiol 76: 7997–8003 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  56. García C. , DuPont H.L. , Long K.Z. , Santos J.I. , Ko G. . ( 2006;). Asymptomatic norovirus infection in Mexican children. J Clin Microbiol 44: 2997–3000 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Gastañaduy P.A. , Hall A.J. , Curns A.T. , Parashar U.D. , Lopman B.A. . ( 2013;). Burden of norovirus gastroenteritis in the ambulatory setting – United States, 2001-2009. J Infect Dis 207: 1058–1065 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Germani Y. , Morillon M. , Begaud E. , Dubourdieu H. , Costa R. , Thevenon J. . ( 1994;). Two-year study of endemic enteric pathogens associated with acute diarrhea in New Caledonia. J Clin Microbiol 32: 1532–1536 [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Gibson K.E. , Opryszko M.C. , Schissler J.T. , Guo Y. , Schwab K.J. . ( 2011;). Evaluation of human enteric viruses in surface water and drinking water resources in southern Ghana. Am J Trop Med Hyg 84: 20–29 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Gladstone B.P. , Iturriza-Gomara M. , Ramani S. , Monica B. , Banerjee I. , Brown D.W. , Gray J.J. , Muliyil J. , Kang G. . ( 2008;). Polymerase chain reaction in the detection of an ‘outbreak’ of asymptomatic viral infections in a community birth cohort in south India. Epidemiol Infect 136: 399–405 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Glass R.I. , Parashar U.D. , Estes M.K. . ( 2009;). Norovirus gastroenteritis. N Engl J Med 361: 1776–1785 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Godoy P. , Domínguez A. , Alvarez J. , Camps N. , Barrabeig I. , Bartolomé R. , Sala M.R. , Ferre D. , Pañella H. , other authors . ( 2009;). [Norovirus outbreaks in hospitals and nursing homes in Catalonia, Spain]. Rev Esp Salud Publica 83: 745–750 (in Spanish) [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Goller J.L. , Dimitriadis A. , Tan A. , Kelly H. , Marshall J.A. . ( 2004;). Long-term features of norovirus gastroenteritis in the elderly. J Hosp Infect 58: 286–291 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Gray J.J. , Jiang X. , Morgan-Capner P. , Desselberger U. , Estes M.K. . ( 1993;). Prevalence of antibodies to Norwalk virus in England: detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using baculovirus-expressed Norwalk virus capsid antigen. J Clin Microbiol 31: 1022–1025 [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Gray J.J. , Cunliffe C. , Ball J. , Graham D.Y. , Desselberger U. , Estes M.K. . ( 1994;). Detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgA, and IgG Norwalk virus-specific antibodies by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with baculovirus-expressed Norwalk virus capsid antigen in adult volunteers challenged with Norwalk virus. J Clin Microbiol 32: 3059–3063 [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Guerrant R.L. , Hughes J.M. , Lima N.L. , Crane J. . ( 1990;). Diarrhea in developed and developing countries: magnitude, special settings, and etiologies. Rev Infect Dis 12: (Suppl. 1), S41–S50 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Gustavsson L. , Andersson L.M. , Lindh M. , Westin J. . ( 2011;). Excess mortality following community-onset norovirus enteritis in the elderly. J Hosp Infect 79: 27–31 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Haas C.N. , Rose J.B. , Gerba C. , Regli S. . ( 1993;). Risk assessment of virus in drinking water. Risk Anal 13: 545–552 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Hahn S. , Kim Y. , Garner P. . ( 2001;). Reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution for treating dehydration due to diarrhoea in children: systematic review. BMJ 323: 81–85 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Hall A.J. , Curns A.T. , McDonald L.C. , Parashar U.D. , Lopman B.A. . ( 2012;). The roles of Clostridium difficile and norovirus among gastroenteritis-associated deaths in the United States, 1999-2007. Clin Infect Dis 55: 216–223 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Hall A.J. , Lopman B.A. , Payne D.C. , Patel M.M. , Gastañaduy P.A. , Vinjé J. , Parashar U.D. . ( 2013;). Norovirus disease in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis 19: 1198–1205 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Hardy M.E. . ( 2005;). Norovirus protein structure and function. FEMS Microbiol Lett 253: 1–8 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Harris J.P. , Lopman B.A. , O'Brien S.J. . ( 2010;). Infection control measures for norovirus: a systematic review of outbreaks in semi-enclosed settings. J Hosp Infect 74: 1–9 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Hemming M. , Räsänen S. , Huhti L. , Paloniemi M. , Salminen M. , Vesikari T. . ( 2013;). Major reduction of rotavirus, but not norovirus, gastroenteritis in children seen in hospital after the introduction of RotaTeq vaccine into the National Immunization Programme in Finland. Eur J Pediatr 172: 739–746 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Hewitt J. , Bell D. , Simmons G.C. , Rivera-Aban M. , Wolf S. , Greening G.E. . ( 2007;). Gastroenteritis outbreak caused by waterborne norovirus at a New Zealand ski resort. Appl Environ Microbiol 73: 7853–7857 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Hoffmann D. , Mauroy A. , Seebach J. , Simon V. , Wantia N. , Protzer U. . ( 2013;). New norovirus classified as a recombinant GII.g/GII.1 causes an extended foodborne outbreak at a university hospital in Munich. J Clin Virol 58: 24–30 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Hsu C.C. , Riley L.K. , Livingston R.S. . ( 2007;). Molecular characterization of three novel murine noroviruses. Virus Genes 34: 147–155 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Huang P. , Farkas T. , Marionneau S. , Zhong W. , Ruvoën-Clouet N. , Morrow A.L. , Altaye M. , Pickering L.K. , Newburg D.S. , other authors . ( 2003;). Noroviruses bind to human ABO, Lewis, and secretor histo-blood group antigens: identification of 4 distinct strain-specific patterns. J Infect Dis 188: 19–31 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Huang P. , Farkas T. , Zhong W. , Tan M. , Thornton S. , Morrow A.L. , Jiang X. . ( 2005;). Norovirus and histo-blood group antigens: demonstration of a wide spectrum of strain specificities and classification of two major binding groups among multiple binding patterns. J Virol 79: 6714–6722 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Huynen P. , Mauroy A. , Martin C. , Savadogo L.G. , Boreux R. , Thiry E. , Melin P. , De Mol P. . ( 2013a;). Molecular epidemiology of norovirus infections in symptomatic and asymptomatic children from Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. J Clin Virol 58: 515–521 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Ito S. , Takeshita S. , Nezu A. , Aihara Y. , Usuku S. , Noguchi Y. , Yokota S. . ( 2006;). Norovirus-associated encephalopathy. Pediatr Infect Dis J 25: 651–652 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Iturriza-Gómara M. , Lopman B. . ( 2014;). Norovirus in healthcare settings. Curr Opin Infect Dis 27: 437–443 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Johnson P.C. , Mathewson J.J. , DuPont H.L. , Greenberg H.B. . ( 1990;). Multiple-challenge study of host susceptibility to Norwalk gastroenteritis in US adults. J Infect Dis 161: 18–21 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Jones M.K. , Watanabe M. , Zhu S. , Graves C.L. , Keyes L.R. , Grau K.R. , Gonzalez-Hernandez M.B. , Iovine N.M. , Wobus C.E. , other authors . ( 2014;). Enteric bacteria promote human and mouse norovirus infection of B cells. Science 346: 755–759 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Kabayiza J.C. , Andersson M.E. , Welinder-Olsson C. , Bergström T. , Muhirwa G. , Lindh M. . ( 2013;). Comparison of rectal swabs and faeces for real-time PCR detection of enteric agents in Rwandan children with gastroenteritis. BMC Infect Dis 13: 447 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Kabayiza J.C. , Andersson M.E. , Nilsson S. , Baribwira C. , Muhirwa G. , Bergström T. , Lindh M. . ( 2014a;). Diarrhoeagenic microbes by real-time PCR in Rwandan children under 5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis. Clin Microbiol Infect 20: O1128–O1135 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Kabayiza J.C. , Andersson M.E. , Nilsson S. , Bergström T. , Muhirwa G. , Lindh M. . ( 2014b;). Real-time PCR identification of agents causing diarrhea in Rwandan children less than 5 years of age. Pediatr Infect Dis J 33: 1037–1042 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Kageyama T. , Kojima S. , Shinohara M. , Uchida K. , Fukushi S. , Hoshino F.B. , Takeda N. , Katayama K. . ( 2003;). Broadly reactive and highly sensitive assay for Norwalk-like viruses based on real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. J Clin Microbiol 41: 1548–1557 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Kaplan J.E. , Schonberger L.B. , Varano G. , Jackman N. , Bied J. , Gary G.W. . ( 1982;). An outbreak of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis in a nursing home. Demonstration of person-to-person transmission by temporal clustering of cases. Am J Epidemiol 116: 940–948 [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Karst S.M. . ( 2010;). Pathogenesis of noroviruses, emerging RNA viruses. Viruses 2: 748–781 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Karst S.M. , Wobus C.E. , Goodfellow I.G. , Green K.Y. , Virgin H.W. . ( 2014;). Advances in norovirus biology. Cell Host Microbe 15: 668–680 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Kim M.J. , Kim Y.J. , Lee J.H. , Lee J.S. , Kim J.H. , Cheon D.S. , Jeong H.S. , Koo H.H. , Sung K.W. , other authors . ( 2011;). Norovirus: a possible cause of pneumatosis intestinalis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 52: 314–318 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Kojima S. , Kageyama T. , Fukushi S. , Hoshino F.B. , Shinohara M. , Uchida K. , Natori K. , Takeda N. , Katayama K. . ( 2002;). Genogroup-specific PCR primers for detection of Norwalk-like viruses. J Virol Methods 100: 107–114 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Koopmans M. , Duizer E. . ( 2004;). Foodborne viruses: an emerging problem. Int J Food Microbiol 90: 23–41 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Koopmans M. , von Bonsdorff C.H. , Vinjé J. , de Medici D. , Monroe S. . ( 2002;). Foodborne viruses. FEMS Microbiol Rev 26: 187–205 [PubMed].[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Kosek M. , Bern C. , Guerrant R.L. . ( 2003;). The global burden of diarrhoeal disease, as estimated from studies published between 1992 and 2000. Bull World Health Organ 81: 197–204 [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Kotloff K.L. , Nataro J.P. , Blackwelder W.C. , Nasrin D. , Farag T.H. , Panchalingam S. , Wu Y. , Sow S.O. , Sur D. , other authors . ( 2013;). Burden and aetiology of diarrhoeal disease in infants and young children in developing countries (the Global Enteric Multicenter Study, GEMS): a prospective, case-control study. Lancet 382: 209–222 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Kroneman A. , Vega E. , Vennema H. , Vinjé J. , White P.A. , Hansman G. , Green K. , Martella V. , Katayama K. , Koopmans M. . ( 2013;). Proposal for a unified norovirus nomenclature and genotyping. Arch Virol 158: 2059–2068 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Krumkamp R. , Sarpong N. , Schwarz N.G. , Adelkofer J. , Loag W. , Eibach D. , Hagen R.M. , Adu-Sarkodie Y. , Tannich E. , May J. . ( 2015;). Gastrointestinal infections and diarrheal disease in Ghanaian infants and children: an outpatient case-control study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9: e0003568 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Kuss S.K. , Best G.T. , Etheredge C.A. , Pruijssers A.J. , Frierson J.M. , Hooper L.V. , Dermody T.S. , Pfeiffer J.K. . ( 2011;). Intestinal microbiota promote enteric virus replication and systemic pathogenesis. Science 334: 249–252 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Lara R. , Galindo E. , Olarte J. , Hernández G. . ( 1974;). [Mixed infections by E. histolytica Shigella and other enteropathogenic bacteria, found in children with diarrhea]. Arch Invest Med (Mex) 5: (Suppl. 2), 515–518 (in Spanish) [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Le Pendu J. , Ruvoën-Clouet N. , Kindberg E. , Svensson L. . ( 2006;). Mendelian resistance to human norovirus infections. Semin Immunol 18: 375–386 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Levine M.M. , Robins-Browne R.M. . ( 2012;). Factors that explain excretion of enteric pathogens by persons without diarrhea. Clin Infect Dis 55: (Suppl. 4), S303–S311 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Li J. , Predmore A. , Divers E. , Lou F. . ( 2012;). New interventions against human norovirus: progress, opportunities, and challenges. Annu Rev Food Sci Technol 3: 331–352 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Lindesmith L. , Moe C. , Marionneau S. , Ruvoen N. , Jiang X. , Lindblad L. , Stewart P. , LePendu J. , Baric R. . ( 2003;). Human susceptibility and resistance to Norwalk virus infection. Nat Med 9: 548–553 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Lindesmith L.C. , Donaldson E.F. , Lobue A.D. , Cannon J.L. , Zheng D.P. , Vinje J. , Baric R.S. . ( 2008;). Mechanisms of GII.4 norovirus persistence in human populations. PLoS Med 5: e31 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Liu Y. , Koda Y. , Soejima M. , Pang H. , Schlaphoff T. , du Toit E.D. , Kimura H. . ( 1998;). Extensive polymorphism of the FUT2 gene in an African (Xhosa) population of South Africa. Hum Genet 103: 204–210 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Liu B.L. , Lambden P.R. , Günther H. , Otto P. , Elschner M. , Clarke I.N. . ( 1999;). Molecular characterization of a bovine enteric calicivirus: relationship to the Norwalk-like viruses. J Virol 73: 819–825 [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Lopman B.A. , Adak G.K. , Reacher M.H. , Brown D.W. . ( 2003a;). Two epidemiologic patterns of norovirus outbreaks: surveillance in England and wales, 1992-2000. Emerg Infect Dis 9: 71–77 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Lopman B.A. , Reacher M. , Gallimore C. , Adak G.K. , Gray J.J. , Brown D.W. . ( 2003b;). A summertime peak of “winter vomiting disease”: surveillance of noroviruses in England and Wales, 1995 to 2002. BMC Public Health 3: 13 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Lysén M. , Thorhagen M. , Brytting M. , Hjertqvist M. , Andersson Y. , Hedlund K.O. . ( 2009;). Genetic diversity among food-borne and waterborne norovirus strains causing outbreaks in Sweden. J Clin Microbiol 47: 2411–2418 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Malek M. , Barzilay E. , Kramer A. , Camp B. , Jaykus L.A. , Escudero-Abarca B. , Derrick G. , White P. , Gerba C. , other authors . ( 2009;). Outbreak of norovirus infection among river rafters associated with packaged delicatessen meat, Grand Canyon, 2005. Clin Infect Dis 48: 31–37 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Mans J. , Netshikweta R. , Magwalivha M. , Van Zyl W.B. , Taylor M.B. . ( 2013;). Diverse norovirus genotypes identified in sewage-polluted river water in South Africa. Epidemiol Infect 141: 303–313 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Mason H.S. , Ball J.M. , Shi J.J. , Jiang X. , Estes M.K. , Arntzen C.J. . ( 1996;). Expression of Norwalk virus capsid protein in transgenic tobacco and potato and its oral immunogenicity in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93: 5335–5340 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Mathijs E. , Stals A. , Baert L. , Botteldoorn N. , Denayer S. , Mauroy A. , Scipioni A. , Daube G. , Dierick K. , other authors . ( 2012;). A review of known and hypothetical transmission routes for noroviruses. Food Environ Virol 4: 131–152 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Mattison K. . ( 2011;). Norovirus as a foodborne disease hazard. Adv Food Nutr Res 62: 1–39 [PubMed].[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Mattison K. , Sebunya T.K. , Shukla A. , Noliwe L.N. , Bidawid S. . ( 2010;). Molecular detection and characterization of noroviruses from children in Botswana. J Med Virol 82: 321–324 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Mattner F. , Sohr D. , Heim A. , Gastmeier P. , Vennema H. , Koopmans M. . ( 2006;). Risk groups for clinical complications of norovirus infections: an outbreak investigation. Clin Microbiol Infect 12: 69–74 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Maunula L. , Miettinen I.T. , von Bonsdorff C.H. . ( 2005;). Norovirus outbreaks from drinking water. Emerg Infect Dis 11: 1716–1721 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Maunula L. , Söderberg K. , Vahtera H. , Vuorilehto V.P. , von Bonsdorff C.H. , Valtari M. , Laakso T. , Lahti K. . ( 2012;). Presence of human noro- and adenoviruses in river and treated wastewater, a longitudinal study and method comparison. J Water Health 10: 87–99 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Maunula L. , Kaupke A. , Vasickova P. , Söderberg K. , Kozyra I. , Lazic S. , van der Poel W.H. , Bouwknegt M. , Rutjes S. , other authors . ( 2013;). Tracing enteric viruses in the European berry fruit supply chain. Int J Food Microbiol 167: 177–185 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  122. McFadden N. , Bailey D. , Carrara G. , Benson A. , Chaudhry Y. , Shortland A. , Heeney J. , Yarovinsky F. , Simmonds P. , other authors . ( 2011;). Norovirus regulation of the innate immune response and apoptosis occurs via the product of the alternative open reading frame 4. PLoS Pathog 7: e1002413 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  123. McSwiggan D.A. , Cubitt D. , Moore W. . ( 1978;). Calicivirus associated with winter vomiting disease. Lancet 311: 1215 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Medici M.C. , Abelli L.A. , Dodi I. , Dettori G. , Chezzi C. . ( 2010;). Norovirus RNA in the blood of a child with gastroenteritis and convulsions – A case report. J Clin Virol 48: 147–149 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Menon V.K. , George S. , Aladin F. , Nawaz S. , Sarkar R. , Lopman B. , Gray J.J. , Gomara M.I. , Kang G. . ( 2013;). Comparison of age-stratified seroprevalence of antibodies against norovirus GII in India and the United Kingdom. PLoS One 8: e56239 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Mitui M.T. , Bozdayi G. , Ahmed S. , Matsumoto T. , Nishizono A. , Ahmed K. . ( 2014;). Detection and molecular characterization of diarrhea causing viruses in single and mixed infections in children: a comparative study between Bangladesh and Turkey. J Med Virol 86: 1159–1168 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Montgomery M.A. , Elimelech M. . ( 2007;). Water and sanitation in developing countries: including health in the equation. Environ Sci Technol 41: 17–24 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Mounts A.W. , Ando T. , Koopmans M. , Bresee J.S. , Noel J. , Glass R.I. . ( 2000;). Cold weather seasonality of gastroenteritis associated with Norwalk-like viruses. J Infect Dis 181: (Suppl. 2), S284–S287 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Munir N. , Liu P. , Gastañaduy P. , Montes J. , Shane A. , Moe C. . ( 2014;). Norovirus infection in immunocompromised children and children with hospital-acquired acute gastroenteritis. J Med Virol 86: 1203–1209 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Murata T. , Katsushima N. , Mizuta K. , Muraki Y. , Hongo S. , Matsuzaki Y. . ( 2007;). Prolonged norovirus shedding in infants ≤ 6 months of age with gastroenteritis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 26: 46–49 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Nakamura K. , Iwai M. , Zhang J. , Obara M. , Horimoto E. , Hasegawa S. , Kurata T. , Takizawa T. . ( 2009;). Detection of a novel recombinant norovirus from sewage water in Toyama prefecture, Japan. Jpn J Infect Dis 62: 394–398 [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Nasrin D. , Wu Y. , Blackwelder W.C. , Farag T.H. , Saha D. , Sow S.O. , Alonso P.L. , Breiman R.F. , Sur D. , other authors . ( 2013;). Health care seeking for childhood diarrhea in developing countries: evidence from seven sites in Africa and Asia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 89: (Suppl.), 3–12 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Nathanson N. , Kew O.M. . ( 2010;). From emergence to eradication: the epidemiology of poliomyelitis deconstructed. Am J Epidemiol 172: 1213–1229 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Nathanson N. , Martin J.R. . ( 1979;). The epidemiology of poliomyelitis: enigmas surrounding its appearance, epidemicity, and disappearance. Am J Epidemiol 110: 672–692 [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Nenonen N.P. , Hannoun C. , Larsson C.U. , Bergström T. . ( 2012;). Marked genomic diversity of norovirus genogroup I strains in a waterborne outbreak. Appl Environ Microbiol 78: 1846–1852 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Nitiema L.W. , Nordgren J. , Ouermi D. , Dianou D. , Traore A.S. , Svensson L. , Simpore J. . ( 2011;). Burden of rotavirus and other enteropathogens among children with diarrhea in Burkina Faso. Int J Infect Dis 15: e646–e652 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Nkwan J. . ( 2009;). Buea Town: water, sanitation, millennium development goals, and local realities in Cameroon. Can J Infect Control 24: 28–29 [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Nordgren J. , Kindberg E. , Lindgren P.E. , Matussek A. , Svensson L. . ( 2010;). Norovirus gastroenteritis outbreak with a secretor-independent susceptibility pattern, Sweden. Emerg Infect Dis 16: 81–87 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  139. O'Ryan M. , Prado V. , Pickering L.K. . ( 2005;). A millennium update on pediatric diarrheal illness in the developing world. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 16: 125–136 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Ogunsanya T.I. , Rotimi V.O. , Adenuga A. . ( 1994;). A study of the aetiological agents of childhood diarrhoea in Lagos, Nigeria. J Med Microbiol 40: 10–14 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Okoh A.I. , Sibanda T. , Gusha S.S. . ( 2010;). Inadequately treated wastewater as a source of human enteric viruses in the environment. Int J Environ Res Public Health 7: 2620–2637 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Papafragkou E. , Hewitt J. , Park G.W. , Greening G. , Vinjé J. . ( 2014;). Challenges of culturing human norovirus in three-dimensional organoid intestinal cell culture models. PLoS One 8: e63485 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Parrino T.A. , Schreiber D.S. , Trier J.S. , Kapikian A.Z. , Blacklow N.R. . ( 1977;). Clinical immunity in acute gastroenteritis caused by Norwalk agent. N Engl J Med 297: 86–89 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  144. Patel M.M. , Widdowson M.A. , Glass R.I. , Akazawa K. , Vinjé J. , Parashar U.D. . ( 2008;). Systematic literature review of role of noroviruses in sporadic gastroenteritis. Emerg Infect Dis 14: 1224–1231 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  145. Patel M.M. , Hall A.J. , Vinjé J. , Parashar U.D. . ( 2009;). Noroviruses: a comprehensive review. J Clin Virol 44: 1–8 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  146. Pawa N. , Vanezis A.P. , Tutton M.G. . ( 2009;). Spontaneous bowel perforation due to norovirus: a case report. Cases J 2: 9101 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Pazdiora P. , Táborska J. , Svecova M. , Sýkora J. . ( 2009;). The diagnosis of norovirus infections in hospitalized children and adolescents with acute gastroenteritis: a study from Pilsen, Czech Republic. Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol 58: 167–172 [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  148. Phillips G. , Lopman B. , Tam C.C. , Iturriza-Gomara M. , Brown D. , Gray J. . ( 2009;). Diagnosing norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease using viral load. BMC Infect Dis 9: 63 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  149. Prasad B.V. , Rothnagel R. , Jiang X. , Estes M.K. . ( 1994;). Three-dimensional structure of baculovirus-expressed Norwalk virus capsids. J Virol 68: 5117–5125 [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  150. Rahouma A. , Klena J.D. , Krema Z. , Abobker A.A. , Treesh K. , Franka E. , Abusnena O. , Shaheen H.I. , El Mohammady H. , other authors . ( 2011;). Enteric pathogens associated with childhood diarrhea in Tripoli-Libya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 84: 886–891 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  151. Ramirez S. , Giammanco G.M. , De Grazia S. , Colomba C. , Martella V. , Arista S. . ( 2009;). Emerging GII.4 norovirus variants affect children with diarrhea in Palermo, Italy in 2006. J Med Virol 81: 139–145 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  152. Reither K. , Ignatius R. , Weitzel T. , Seidu-Korkor A. , Anyidoho L. , Saad E. , Djie-Maletz A. , Ziniel P. , Amoo-Sakyi F. , other authors . ( 2007;). Acute childhood diarrhoea in northern Ghana: epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics. BMC Infect Dis 7: 104 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  153. Riera-Montes M. , Brus Sjölander K. , Allestam G. , Hallin E. , Hedlund K.O. , Löfdahl M. . ( 2011;). Waterborne norovirus outbreak in a municipal drinking-water supply in Sweden. Epidemiol Infect 139: 1928–1935 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  154. Rockx B. , De Wit M. , Vennema H. , Vinjé J. , De Bruin E. , Van Duynhoven Y. , Koopmans M. . ( 2002;). Natural history of human calicivirus infection: a prospective cohort study. Clin Infect Dis 35: 246–253 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  155. Rockx B. , Baric R.S. , de Grijs I. , Duizer E. , Koopmans M.P. . ( 2005a;). Characterization of the homo- and heterotypic immune responses after natural norovirus infection. J Med Virol 77: 439–446 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  156. Rockx B.H. , Vennema H. , Hoebe C.J. , Duizer E. , Koopmans M.P. . ( 2005b;). Association of histo-blood group antigens and susceptibility to norovirus infections. J Infect Dis 191: 749–754 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  157. Rodríguez-Guillén L. , Vizzi E. , Alcalá A.C. , Pujol F.H. , Liprandi F. , Ludert J.E. . ( 2005;). Calicivirus infection in human immunodeficiency virus seropositive children and adults. J Clin Virol 33: 104–109 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  158. Rohayem J. . ( 2009;). Norovirus seasonality and the potential impact of climate change. Clin Microbiol Infect 15: 524–527 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  159. Rondy M. , Koopmans M. , Rotsaert C. , Van Loon T. , Beljaars B. , Van Dijk G. , Siebenga J. , Svraka S. , Rossen J.W. , other authors . ( 2011;). Norovirus disease associated with excess mortality and use of statins: a retrospective cohort study of an outbreak following a pilgrimage to Lourdes. Epidemiol Infect 139: 453–463 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  160. Ruether I.G. , Tsakogiannis D. , Kyriakopoulou Z. , Dimitriou T.G. , Papamichail C. , Gartzonika C. , Leveidiotou-Stefanou S. , Markoulatos P. . ( 2014;). Circulation of intergenotype recombinant noroviruses GII.9/GII.6 from 2006 to 2011 in central Greece. Virus Genes 48: 23–31 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  161. Ruvoën N. , Le Pendu J. . ( 2013;). [Genetic susceptibility to norovirus infection]. Pathol Biol (Paris) 61: 28–35 (in French) [PubMed].[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  162. Ruvoën-Clouet N. , Belliot G. , Le Pendu J. . ( 2013;). Noroviruses and histo-blood groups: the impact of common host genetic polymorphisms on virus transmission and evolution. Rev Med Virol 23: 355–366 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  163. Rydell G.E. , Kindberg E. , Larson G. , Svensson L. . ( 2011;). Susceptibility to winter vomiting disease: a sweet matter. Rev Med Virol 21: 370–382 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  164. Sang S. , Zhao Z. , Suo J. , Xing Y. , Jia N. , Gao Y. , Xie L. , Du M. , Liu B. , other authors . ( 2014;). Report of recombinant norovirus GII.g/GII.12 in Beijing, China. PLoS One 9: e88210 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  165. Scallan E. , Hoekstra R.M. , Angulo F.J. , Tauxe R.V. , Widdowson M.A. , Roy S.L. , Jones J.L. , Griffin P.M. . ( 2011;). Foodborne illness acquired in the United States – major pathogens. Emerg Infect Dis 17: 7–15 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  166. Schreiber D.S. , Blacklow N.R. , Trier J.S. . ( 1973;). The mucosal lesion of the proximal small intestine in acute infectious nonbacterial gastroenteritis. N Engl J Med 288: 1318–1323 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  167. Sdiri-Loulizi K. , Ambert-Balay K. , Gharbi-Khelifi H. , Sakly N. , Hassine M. , Chouchane S. , Guediche M.N. , Pothier P. , Aouni M. . ( 2009;). Molecular epidemiology of norovirus gastroenteritis investigated using samples collected from children in Tunisia during a four-year period: detection of the norovirus variant GGII.4 Hunter as early as January 2003. J Clin Microbiol 47: 421–429 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  168. Seitz S.R. , Leon J.S. , Schwab K.J. , Lyon G.M. , Dowd M. , McDaniels M. , Abdulhafid G. , Fernandez M.L. , Lindesmith L.C. , other authors . ( 2011;). Norovirus infectivity in humans and persistence in water. Appl Environ Microbiol 77: 6884–6888 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  169. Siebenga J.J. , Beersma M.F. , Vennema H. , van Biezen P. , Hartwig N.J. , Koopmans M. . ( 2008;). High prevalence of prolonged norovirus shedding and illness among hospitalized patients: a model for in vivo molecular evolution. J Infect Dis 198: 994–1001 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  170. Siebenga J.J. , Vennema H. , Zheng D.P. , Vinjé J. , Lee B.E. , Pang X.L. , Ho E.C. , Lim W. , Choudekar A. , other authors . ( 2009;). Norovirus illness is a global problem: emergence and spread of norovirus GII.4 variants, 2001-2007. J Infect Dis 200: 802–812 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  171. Simmons K. , Gambhir M. , Leon J. , Lopman B. . ( 2013;). Duration of immunity to norovirus gastroenteritis. Emerg Infect Dis 19: 1260–1267 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  172. Sugieda M. , Nagaoka H. , Kakishima Y. , Ohshita T. , Nakamura S. , Nakajima S. . ( 1998;). Detection of Norwalk-like virus genes in the caecum contents of pigs. Arch Virol 143: 1215–1221 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  173. Sukhrie F.H. , Teunis P. , Vennema H. , Copra C. , Thijs Beersma M.F. , Bogerman J. , Koopmans M. . ( 2012;). Nosocomial transmission of norovirus is mainly caused by symptomatic cases. Clin Infect Dis 54: 931–937 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  174. Tan M. , Jiang X. . ( 2010;). Norovirus gastroenteritis, carbohydrate receptors, and animal models. PLoS Pathog 6: e1000983 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  175. Tan M. , Jiang X. . ( 2011;). Norovirus-host interaction: multi-selections by human histo-blood group antigens. Trends Microbiol 19: 382–388 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  176. Tan M. , Jin M. , Xie H. , Duan Z. , Jiang X. , Fang Z. . ( 2008;). Outbreak studies of a GII-3 and a GII-4 norovirus revealed an association between HBGA phenotypes and viral infection. J Med Virol 80: 1296–1301 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  177. Taube S. , Kolawole A.O. , Höhne M. , Wilkinson J.E. , Handley S.A. , Perry J.W. , Thackray L.B. , Akkina R. , Wobus C.E. . ( 2013;). A mouse model for human norovirus. MBio 4: e00450-13 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  178. Teunis P.F. , Moe C.L. , Liu P. , Miller S.E. , Lindesmith L. , Baric R.S. , Le Pendu J. , Calderon R.L. . ( 2008;). Norwalk virus: how infectious is it?. J Med Virol 80: 1468–1476 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  179. Thackray L.B. , Wobus C.E. , Chachu K.A. , Liu B. , Alegre E.R. , Henderson K.S. , Kelley S.T. , Virgin H.W. IV . ( 2007;). Murine noroviruses comprising a single genogroup exhibit biological diversity despite limited sequence divergence. J Virol 81: 10460–10473 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  180. Thorne L.G. , Goodfellow I.G. . ( 2014;). Norovirus gene expression and replication. J Gen Virol 95: 278–291 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  181. Thorne L. , Bailey D. , Goodfellow I. . ( 2012;). High-resolution functional profiling of the norovirus genome. J Virol 86: 11441–11456 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  182. Thorven M. , Grahn A. , Hedlund K.O. , Johansson H. , Wahlfrid C. , Larson G. , Svensson L. . ( 2005;). A homozygous nonsense mutation (428G‐‐>A) in the human secretor (FUT2) gene provides resistance to symptomatic norovirus (GGII) infections. J Virol 79: 15351–15355 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  183. Trainor E. , Lopman B. , Iturriza-Gomara M. , Dove W. , Ngwira B. , Nakagomi O. , Nakagomi T. , Parashar U. , Cunliffe N. . ( 2013;). Detection and molecular characterisation of noroviruses in hospitalised children in Malawi, 1997-2007. J Med Virol 85: 1299–1306 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  184. Troeger H. , Loddenkemper C. , Schneider T. , Schreier E. , Epple H.J. , Zeitz M. , Fromm M. , Schulzke J.D. . ( 2009;). Structural and functional changes of the duodenum in human norovirus infection. Gut 58: 1070–1077 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  185. Tse H. , Lau S.K. , Chan W.M. , Choi G.K. , Woo P.C. , Yuen K.Y. . ( 2012;). Complete genome sequences of novel canine noroviruses in Hong Kong. J Virol 86: 9531–9532 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  186. Tu E.T. , Nguyen T. , Lee P. , Bull R.A. , Musto J. , Hansman G. , White P.A. , Rawlinson W.D. , McIver C.J. . ( 2007;). Norovirus GII.4 strains and outbreaks, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis 13: 1128–1130 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  187. Tu E.T. , Bull R.A. , Kim M.J. , McIver C.J. , Heron L. , Rawlinson W.D. , White P.A. . ( 2008;). Norovirus excretion in an aged-care setting. J Clin Microbiol 46: 2119–2121 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  188. Ueki Y. , Sano D. , Watanabe T. , Akiyama K. , Omura T. . ( 2005;). Norovirus pathway in water environment estimated by genetic analysis of strains from patients of gastroenteritis, sewage, treated wastewater, river water and oysters. Water Res 39: 4271–4280 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  189. van Asten L. , Siebenga J. , van den Wijngaard C. , Verheij R. , van Vliet H. , Kretzschmar M. , Boshuizen H. , van Pelt W. , Koopmans M. . ( 2011;). Unspecified gastroenteritis illness and deaths in the elderly associated with norovirus epidemics. Epidemiology 22: 336–343 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  190. Verhaelen K. , Bouwknegt M. , Lodder-Verschoor F. , Rutjes S.A. , de Roda Husman A.M. . ( 2012;). Persistence of human norovirus GII.4 and GI.4, murine norovirus, and human adenovirus on soft berries as compared with PBS at commonly applied storage conditions. Int J Food Microbiol 160: 137–144 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  191. Vinjé J. . ( 2015;). Advances in laboratory methods for detection and typing of norovirus. J Clin Microbiol 53: 373–381 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  192. Virgin H.W. . ( 2014;). The virome in mammalian physiology and disease. Cell 157: 142–150 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  193. Vu Nguyen T. , Le Van P. , Le Huy C. , Nguyen Gia K. , Weintraub A. . ( 2006;). Etiology and epidemiology of diarrhea in children in Hanoi, Vietnam. Int J Infect Dis 10: 298–308 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  194. Wang Q.H. , Han M.G. , Cheetham S. , Souza M. , Funk J.A. , Saif L.J. . ( 2005;). Porcine noroviruses related to human noroviruses. Emerg Infect Dis 11: 1874–1881 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  195. Wang Q.H. , Costantini V. , Saif L.J. . ( 2007;). Porcine enteric caliciviruses: genetic and antigenic relatedness to human caliciviruses, diagnosis and epidemiology. Vaccine 25: 5453–5466 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  196. Widdowson M.A. , Cramer E.H. , Hadley L. , Bresee J.S. , Beard R.S. , Bulens S.N. , Charles M. , Chege W. , Isakbaeva E. , other authors . ( 2004;). Outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis on cruise ships and on land: identification of a predominant circulating strain of norovirus – United States, 2002. J Infect Dis 190: 27–36 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  197. Wyatt R.G. , Dolin R. , Blacklow N.R. , DuPont H.L. , Buscho R.F. , Thornhill T.S. , Kapikian A.Z. , Chanock R.M. . ( 1974;). Comparison of three agents of acute infectious nonbacterial gastroenteritis by cross-challenge in volunteers. J Infect Dis 129: 709–714 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  198. Xi J.N. , Graham D.Y. , Wang K.N. , Estes M.K. . ( 1990;). Norwalk virus genome cloning and characterization. Science 250: 1580–1583 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  199. Xia M. , Farkas T. , Jiang X. . ( 2007;). Norovirus capsid protein expressed in yeast forms virus-like particles and stimulates systemic and mucosal immunity in mice following an oral administration of raw yeast extracts. J Med Virol 79: 74–83 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  200. Zhang S. , Chen T.H. , Wang J. , Dong C. , Pan J. , Moe C. , Chen W. , Yang L. , Wang X. , other authors . ( 2011;). Symptomatic and asymptomatic infections of rotavirus, norovirus, and adenovirus among hospitalized children in Xi'an, China. J Med Virol 83: 1476–1484 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  201. Zheng D.P. , Ando T. , Fankhauser R.L. , Beard R.S. , Glass R.I. , Monroe S.S. . ( 2006;). Norovirus classification and proposed strain nomenclature. Virology 346: 312–323 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.000194
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.000194
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error