1887

Abstract

In 2011, a neurological disease was reported in a herd of goats () in Asturias, Spain. Initial sequencing identified the causative agent as louping ill virus (LIV). Subsequently, with the application of whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, empirical data demonstrates that the LIV-like virus detected is significantly divergent from LIV and Spanish sheep encephalitis virus (SSEV). This virus encoded an amino acid sequence motif at the site of a previously identified marker for differentiating tick-borne flaviviruses that was shared with a virus previously isolated in Ireland in 1968. The significance of these observations reflects the diversity of tick-borne flaviviruses in Europe. These data also contribute to our knowledge of the evolution of tick-borne flaviviruses and could reflect the movement of viruses throughout Europe. Based on these observations, the proposed name for this virus is Spanish goat encephalitis virus (SGEV), to distinguish it from SSEV.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.000096
2015-07-01
2019-09-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/96/7/1676.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.000096&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Balseiro A., Royo L. J., Martínez C. P., Fernández de Mera I. G., Höfle U., Polledo L., Marreros N., Casais R., Marín J. F.. ( 2012; ). Louping ill in goats, Spain, 2011. . Emerg Infect Dis 18:, 976–978. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Gao G. F., Jiang W. R., Hussain M. H., Venugopal K., Gritsun T. S., Reid H. W., Gould E. A.. ( 1993; a). Sequencing and antigenic studies of a Norwegian virus isolated from encephalomyelitic sheep confirm the existence of louping ill virus outside Great Britain and Ireland. . J Gen Virol 74:, 109–114. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Gao G. F., Hussain M. H., Reid H. W., Gould E. A.. ( 1993; b). Classification of a new member of the TBE flavivirus subgroup by its immunological, pathogenetic and molecular characteristics: identification of subgroup-specific pentapeptides. . Virus Res 30:, 129–144. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Gao G. F., Zanotto P. M., Holmes E. C., Reid H. W., Gould E. A.. ( 1997; ). Molecular variation, evolution and geographical distribution of louping ill virus. . Acta Virol 41:, 259–268.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. González L., Reid H. W., Pow I., Gilmour J. S.. ( 1987; ). A disease resembling louping-ill in sheep in the Basque region of Spain. . Vet Rec 121:, 12–13. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Grard G., Moureau G., Charrel R. N., Lemasson J.-J., Gonzalez J.-P., Gallian P., Gritsun T. S., Holmes E. C., Gould E. A., de Lamballerie X.. ( 2007; ). Genetic characterization of tick-borne flaviviruses: new insights into evolution, pathogenetic determinants and taxonomy. . Virology 361:, 80–92. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Gray D., Webster K., Berry J. E.. ( 1988; ). Evidence of louping ill and tick-borne fever in goats. . Vet Rec 122:, 66. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Gritsun T. S., Lashkevich V. A., Gould E. A.. ( 2003; ). Tick-borne encephalitis. . Antiviral Res 57:, 129–146. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Hahn C. S., Hahn Y. S., Rice C. M., Lee E., Dalgarno L., Strauss E. G., Strauss J. H.. ( 1987; ). Conserved elements in the 3′ untranslated region of flavivirus RNAs and potential cyclization sequences. . J Mol Biol 198:, 33–41. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Hoenninger V. M., Rouha H., Orlinger K. K., Miorin L., Marcello A., Kofler R. M., Mandl C. W.. ( 2008; ). Analysis of the effects of alterations in the tick-borne encephalitis virus 3′-noncoding region on translation and RNA replication using reporter replicons. . Virology 377:, 419–430. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Jeffries C. L., Mansfield K. L., Phipps L. P., Wakeley P. R., Mearns R., Schock A., Bell S., Breed A. C., Fooks A. R., Johnson N.. ( 2014; ). Louping ill virus: an endemic tick-borne disease of Great Britain. . J Gen Virol 95:, 1005–1014. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Kofler R. M., Heinz F. X., Mandl C. W.. ( 2002; ). Capsid protein C of tick-borne encephalitis virus tolerates large internal deletions and is a favorable target for attenuation of virulence. . J Virol 76:, 3534–3543. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Leung J. Y., Pijlman G. P., Kondratieva N., Hyde J., Mackenzie J. M., Khromykh A. A.. ( 2008; ). Role of nonstructural protein NS2A in flavivirus assembly. . J Virol 82:, 4731–4741. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Liu W. J., Chen H. B., Khromykh A. A.. ( 2003; ). Molecular and functional analyses of Kunjin virus infectious cDNA clones demonstrate the essential roles for NS2A in virus assembly and for a nonconservative residue in NS3 in RNA replication. . J Virol 77:, 7804–7813. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Liu W. J., Wang X. J., Mokhonov V. V., Shi P. Y., Randall R., Khromykh A. A.. ( 2005; ). Inhibition of interferon signaling by the New York 99 strain and Kunjin subtype of West Nile virus involves blockage of STAT1 and STAT2 activation by nonstructural proteins. . J Virol 79:, 1934–1942. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Mackenzie J. M., Khromykh A. A., Jones M. K., Westaway E. G.. ( 1998; ). Subcellular localization and some biochemical properties of the flavivirus Kunjin nonstructural proteins NS2A and NS4A. . Virology 245:, 203–215. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Mandl C. W., Holzmann H., Meixner T., Rauscher S., Stadler P. F., Allison S. L., Heinz F. X.. ( 1998; ). Spontaneous and engineered deletions in the 3′ noncoding region of tick-borne encephalitis virus: construction of highly attenuated mutants of a flavivirus. . J Virol 72:, 2132–2140.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Marin M. S., McKenzie J., Gao G. F., Reid H. W., Antoniadis A., Gould E. A.. ( 1995; ). The virus causing encephalomyelitis in sheep in Spain: a new member of the tick-borne encephalitis group. . Res Vet Sci 58:, 11–13. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. McGuire K., Holmes E. C., Gao G. F., Reid H. W., Gould E. A.. ( 1998; ). Tracing the origins of louping ill virus by molecular phylogenetic analysis. . J Gen Virol 79:, 981–988.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Muñoz-Jordán J. L., Laurent-Rolle M., Ashour J., Martínez-Sobrido L., Ashok M., Lipkin W. I., García-Sastre A.. ( 2005; ). Inhibition of alpha/beta interferon signaling by the NS4B protein of flaviviruses. . J Virol 79:, 8004–8013. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Papadopoulos O., Paschaleri-Papadopoulou E., Deligaris N., Doukas G.. ( 1971; ). Isolation of tick-borne encephalitis virus from a flock of goats with abortions and fatal disease (preliminary report). . Veterinary News Greece 3:, 112–114.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Pletnev A., Gould E., Heinz F. X., Meyers G., Thiel H.-J., Bukh J., Stiasny K., Collett M. S., Becher P. et al. ( 2011; ). Family: Flaviviridae. . In Virus Taxonomy: Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, pp. 1003–1010. Edited by King A. M. Q., Adams M. J., Carstens E. B., Lefkowitz E. J... Oxford:: Elsevier;.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Reid H. W., Buxton D., Pow I., Finlayson J.. ( 1984; ). Transmission of louping-ill virus in goat milk. . Vet Rec 114:, 163–165. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Shiu S. Y., Ayres M. D., Gould E. A.. ( 1991; ). Genomic sequence of the structural proteins of louping ill virus: comparative analysis with tick-borne encephalitis virus. . Virology 180:, 411–415. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Tu Y. C., Yu C. Y., Liang J. J., Lin E., Liao C. L., Lin Y. L.. ( 2012; ). Blocking double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase PKR by Japanese encephalitis virus nonstructural protein 2A. . J Virol 86:, 10347–10358. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Umareddy I., Chao A., Sampath A., Gu F., Vasudevan S. G.. ( 2006; ). Dengue virus NS4B interacts with NS3 and dissociates it from single-stranded RNA. . J Gen Virol 87:, 2605–2614. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Wallner G., Mandl C. W., Kunz C., Heinz F. X.. ( 1995; ). The flavivirus 3′-noncoding region: extensive size heterogeneity independent of evolutionary relationships among strains of tick-borne encephalitis virus. . Virology 213:, 169–178. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Wertheim J. O., Kosakovsky Pond S. L.. ( 2011; ). Purifying selection can obscure the ancient age of viral lineages. . Mol Biol Evol 28:, 3355–3365. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.000096
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.000096
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary Data



PDF

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error