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Abstract

Bracoviruses and ichnoviruses are endogenous viruses of parasitic wasps that produce particles containing virulence genes expressed in host tissues and necessary for parasitism success. In the case of bracoviruses the particles are produced by conserved genes of nudiviral origin integrated permanently in the wasp genome, whereas the virulence genes can strikingly differ depending on the wasp lineage. To date most data obtained on bracoviruses concerned species from the braconid subfamily of Microgastrinae. To gain a broader view on the diversity of virulence genes we sequenced the genome packaged in the particles of Chelonus inanitus bracovirus (CiBV) produced by a wasp belonging to a different subfamily: the Cheloninae. These are egg-larval parasitoids, which means that they oviposit into the host egg and the wasp larvae then develop within the larval stages of the host. We found that most of CiBV virulence genes belong to families that are specific to Cheloninae. As other bracoviruses and ichnoviruses however, CiBV encode genes encoding truncated versions of the immune cactus/IκB factor, which suggests these proteins might play a key role in host–parasite interactions involving domesticated endogenous viruses. We found that the structures of CiBV V-ANKs are different from those previously reported. Phylogenetic analysis supports the hypothesis that they may originate from a cactus/IκB immune gene from the wasp genome acquired by the bracovirus. However, their evolutionary history is different from that shared by other V-ANKs, whose common origin probably reflects horizontal gene transfer events of virus sequences between braconid and ichneumonid wasps.

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2022-10-25
2024-05-25
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