1887

Abstract

The identification of SARS-CoV-2-like viruses in Malayan pangolins () has focused attention on these endangered animals and the viruses they carry. We successfully isolated a novel respirovirus from the lungs of a dead Malayan pangolin. Similar to murine respirovirus, the full-length genome of this novel virus was 15 384 nucleotides comprising six genes in the order 3′–(leader)–NP-P-M-F-HN--(trailer)−5’. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this virus belongs to the genus and is most closely related to murine respirovirus. Notably, animal infection experiments indicated that the pangolin virus is highly pathogenic and transmissible in mice, with inoculated mice having variable clinical symptoms and a fatality rate of 70.37 %. The virus was found to replicate in most tissues with the exception of muscle and heart. Contact transmission of the virus was 100 % efficient, although the mice in the contact group displayed milder symptoms, with the virus mainly being detected in the trachea and lungs. The isolation of a novel respirovirus from the Malayan pangolin provides new insight into the evolution and distribution of this important group of viruses and again demonstrates the potential infectious disease threats faced by endangered pangolins.

Funding
This study was supported by the:
  • National Natural Science Foundation of China (Award 31822056)
    • Principle Award Recipient: YongyiShen
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.001586
2021-04-12
2021-05-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Sakaguchi T, Kato A, Kiyotani K, Yoshida T, Nagai Y. Studies on the paramyxovirus accessory genes by reverse genetics in the Sendai virus-mouse system. Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci 2008; 84:439–451 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Tashiro M, McQueen NL, Seto JT. Determinants of organ tropism of Sendai virus. Front Biosci 1999; 4:d642–645 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Fukumi H, Nishikawa F, Kitayama T. A pneumotropic virus from mice causing hemagglutination. Jpn J Med Sci Biol 1954; 7:345–363 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Parker JC, Tennant RW, Ward TG, Rowe WP. Enzootic Sendai virus infections in mouse breeder colonies within the United States. Science 1964; 146:936–938 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Zurcher C, Burek JD, Van Nunen MC, Meihuizen SP. A naturally occurring epizootic caused by Sendai virus in breeding and aging rodent colonies. I. infection in the mouse. Lab Anim Sci 1977; 27:955–962[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Parker JC, Reynolds RK. Natural history of Sendai virus infection in mice. Am J Epidemiol 1968; 88:112–125 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Faísca P, Desmecht D, virus S. Sendai virus, the mouse parainfluenza type 1: a longstanding pathogen that remains up-to-date. Res Vet Sci 2007; 82:115–125 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Shi LY, Li M, Yuan LJ, Wang Q, Li X-M. A new paramyxovirus, Tianjin strain, isolated from common cotton-eared marmoset: genome characterization and structural protein sequence analysis. Arch Virol 2008; 153:1715–1723 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Liu P, Chen W, Chen JP. Viral metagenomics revealed Sendai virus and coronavirus infection of Malayan pangolins (Manis javanica). Viruses 2019; 11:979 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Xiao K, Zhai J, Feng Y, Zhou N, Zhang X et al. Isolation of SARS-CoV-2-related coronavirus from Malayan pangolins. Nature 2020; 583:286–289 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Chen S, Zhou Y, Chen Y, Gu J. fastp: an ultra-fast all-in-one FASTQ preprocessor. Bioinformatics 2018; 34:i884–i890 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Li H, Durbin R. Fast and accurate long-read alignment with Burrows-Wheeler transform. Bioinformatics 2010; 26:589–595 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Li D, Luo R, Liu CM, Leung CM, Ting HF et al. MEGAHIT v1.0: a fast and scalable metagenome assembler driven by advanced methodologies and community practices. Methods 2016; 102:3–11 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Kearse M, Moir R, Wilson A, Stones-Havas S, Cheung M et al. Geneious basic: an integrated and extendable desktop software platform for the organization and analysis of sequence data. Bioinformatics 2012; 28:1647–1649 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Katoh K, Standley DM. MAFFT multiple sequence alignment software version 7: improvements in performance and usability. Mol Biol Evol 2013; 30:772–780 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Stamatakis A. RAxML-VI-HPC: maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic analyses with thousands of taxa and mixed models. Bioinformatics 2006; 22:2688–2690 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Posada D, Crandall KA. MODELTEST: testing the model of DNA substitution. Bioinformatics 1998; 14:817–818 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Marsh GA, de Jong C, Barr JA, Tachedjian M, Smith C et al. Cedar virus: a novel Henipavirus isolated from Australian bats. PLoS Pathog 2012; 8:e1002836 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Forth LF, Konrath A, Klose K, Schlottau K, Hoffmann K et al. A novel squirrel respirovirus with putative zoonotic potential. Viruses 2018; 10:373 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Burke CW, Li M, Hurwitz JL, Vogel P, Russell CJ. Relationships among dissemination of primary parainfluenza virus infection in the respiratory tract, mucosal and peripheral immune responses, and protection from reinfection: a noninvasive bioluminescence-imaging study. J Virol 2015; 89:3568–3583 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Burke CW, Mason JN, Surman SL, Jones BG, Dalloneau E et al. Illumination of parainfluenza virus infection and transmission in living animals reveals a tissue-specific dichotomy. PLoS Pathog 2011; 7:e1002134 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Burke CW, Bridges O, Brown S, Rahija R, Russell CJ. Mode of parainfluenza virus transmission determines the dynamics of primary infection and protection from reinfection. PLoS Pathog 2013; 9:e1003786 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Abbas RMF, Torigoe D, Kameda Y, Tag-El-Din-Hassan HT, Sasaki N et al. Verification of genetic loci responsible for the resistance/susceptibility to the Sendai virus infection using congenic mice. Infect Genet Evol 2018; 57:75–81 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Brownstein DG, Winkler S. Genetic resistance to lethal Sendai virus pneumonia: virus replication and interferon production in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice. Lab Anim Sci 1986; 36:126–129[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.001586
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.001586
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

Supplementary material 1

PDF

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error