1887

Abstract

The species ) consists of two conventional clusters and one unconventional cluster. At present, sequence analysis shows no evidence of recombination between conventional and unconventional types. However, the factors underlying this genetic barrier are unclear. Here, we systematically dissected the genome components linked to these peculiar phenomena, using the viral reverse genetic tools. We reported that viral capsids of the unconventional types expressed poorly in human cells. The -encapsidation outputs across conventional and unconventional types were also with low efficiency. However, replicons of conventional types bearing exchanged 5′-untranslated region (UTR) or non-structural regions from the unconventional types were replication-competent. Furthermore, we created a viable recombinant EVA71 (conventional type) with its P3 region replaced by that from EVA89 (unconventional type). Thus, our data for the first time reveal the potential for fertile genetic exchanges between conventional and unconventional types. It also discloses that the mysterious recombination barriers may lie in uncoordinated capsid expression and particle assembly by different clusters.

  • This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License.
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.001479
2020-08-07
2021-10-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/101/11/1145.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.001479&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Nikonov OS, Chernykh ES, Garber MB, Nikonova EY. Enteroviruses: classification, diseases they cause, and approaches to development of antiviral drugs. Biochemistry 2017; 82:1615–1631 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Simmonds P, Gorbalenya AE, Harvala H, Hovi T, Knowles NJ et al. Recommendations for the nomenclature of enteroviruses and rhinoviruses. Arch Virol 2020; 165:793–797 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Aswathyraj S, Arunkumar G, Alidjinou EK, Hober D, Hand HD. Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD): emerging epidemiology and the need for a vaccine strategy. Med Microbiol Immunol 2016; 205:397–407 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Fu X, Wan Z, Li Y, Hu Y, Jin X et al. National epidemiology and evolutionary history of four hand, foot and mouth disease-related enteroviruses in China from 2008 to 2016. Virol Sin 2020; 35:21–33 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Oberste MS, Maher K, Michele SM, Belliot G, Uddin M et al. Enteroviruses 76, 89, 90 and 91 represent a novel group within the species human enterovirus a. J Gen Virol 2005; 86:445–451 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Baggen J, Thibaut HJ, Strating JRPM, van Kuppeveld FJM. The life cycle of non-polio enteroviruses and how to target it. Nat Rev Microbiol 2018; 16:368–381 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Gao Y, Sun S-Q, Guo H-C. Biological function of foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural proteins and non-coding elements. Virol J 2016; 13:107 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Lin J-Y, Chen T-C, Weng K-F, Chang S-C, Chen L-L et al. Viral and host proteins involved in picornavirus life cycle. J Biomed Sci 2009; 16:103 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Nikolaidis M, Mimouli K, Kyriakopoulou Z, Tsimpidis M, Tsakogiannis D et al. Large-Scale genomic analysis reveals recurrent patterns of intertypic recombination in human enteroviruses. Virology 2019; 526:72–80 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Lukashev AN, Lashkevich VA, Ivanova OE, Koroleva GA, Hinkkanen AE et al. Recombination in circulating enteroviruses. J Virol 2003; 77:10423–10431 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bessaud M, Joffret M-L, Holmblat B, Razafindratsimandresy R, Delpeyroux F et al. Genetic relationship between cocirculating human enteroviruses species C. PLoS One 2011; 6:e24823 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Kyriakopoulou Z, Pliaka V, Amoutzias GD, Markoulatos P. Recombination among human non-polio enteroviruses: implications for epidemiology and evolution. Virus Genes 2015; 50:177–188 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Schibler M, Gerlach D, Martinez Y, Van Belle S, Turin L et al. Experimental human rhinovirus and enterovirus interspecies recombination. J Gen Virol 2012; 93:93–101 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Muslin C, Joffret M-L, Pelletier I, Blondel B, Delpeyroux F. Evolution and emergence of enteroviruses through intra- and inter-species recombination: plasticity and phenotypic impact of modular genetic exchanges in the 5' untranslated region. PLoS Pathog 2015; 11:e1005266 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Lowry K, Woodman A, Cook J, Evans DJ. Recombination in enteroviruses is a biphasic replicative process involving the generation of greater-than genome length 'imprecise' intermediates. PLoS Pathog 2014; 10:e1004191 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Woodman A, Lee K-M, Janissen R, Gong Y-N, Dekker NH et al. Predicting Intraserotypic recombination in enterovirus 71. J Virol 2019; 93: [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Gallei A, Pankraz A, Thiel H-J, Becher P. Rna recombination in vivo in the absence of viral replication. J Virol 2004; 78:6271–6281 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Martín J, Samoilovich E, Dunn G, Lackenby A, Feldman E et al. Isolation of an intertypic poliovirus capsid recombinant from a child with vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis. J Virol 2002; 76:10921–10928 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Lukashev AN, Shumilina EY, Belalov IS, Ivanova OE, Eremeeva TP et al. Recombination strategies and evolutionary dynamics of the human enterovirus a global gene pool. J Gen Virol 2014; 95:868–873 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Schibler M, Piuz I, Hao W, Tapparel C, López S. Chimeric rhinoviruses obtained via genetic engineering or artificially induced recombination are viable only if the polyprotein coding sequence derives from the same species. J Virol 2015; 89:4470–4480 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Huang K, Zhang Y, Song Y, Cui H, Yan D et al. Antigenic characteristics and genomic analysis of novel EV-A90 enteroviruses isolated in Xinjiang, China. Sci Rep 2018; 8:10247 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Wang M, Yan J, Zhu L, Wang M, Liu L et al. The establishment of infectious clone and single round infectious particles for coxsackievirus A10. Virol Sin 2020; 205: [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Tamura K, Peterson D, Peterson N, Stecher G, Nei M et al. MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Mol Biol Evol 2011; 28:2731–2739 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Chen P, Song Z, Qi Y, Feng X, Xu N et al. Molecular determinants of enterovirus 71 viral entry: cleft around GLN-172 on VP1 protein interacts with variable region on scavenge receptor B 2. J Biol Chem 2012; 287:6406–6420 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Yuan M, Yan J, Xun J, Chen C, Zhang Y et al. Enhanced human enterovirus 71 infection by endocytosis inhibitors reveals multiple entry pathways by enterovirus causing hand-foot-and-mouth diseases. Virol J 2018; 15:1 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Deshpande JM, Sharma DK, Saxena VK, Shetty SA, Qureshi T et al. Genomic characterization of two new enterovirus types, EV-A114 and EV-A121. J Med Microbiol 2016; 65:1465–1471 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Hanson PJ, Ye X, Qiu Y, Zhang HM, Hemida MG et al. Cleavage of DAP5 by coxsackievirus B3 2A protease facilitates viral replication and enhances apoptosis by altering translation of IRES-containing genes. Cell Death Differ 2016; 23:828–840 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Muslin K. Bessaud, Blondel, Delpeyroux. recombination in enteroviruses, a multi-step modular evolutionary process. Viruses 2019; 11:
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Fieldhouse JK, Wang X, Mallinson KA, Tsao RW, Gray GC. A systematic review of evidence that enteroviruses may be zoonotic. Emerg Microbes Infect 2018; 7:1–9 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.001479
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.001479
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

Supplementary material 1

PDF

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error