1887

Abstract

All of the known porcine sapeloviruses (PSVs) currently belong to a single genotype in the genus (family ). Here, the complete genome of a second, possibly recombinant, genotype of PSV strain SZ1M-F/PSV/HUN2013 (MN807752) from a faecal sample of a paraplegic pig in Hungary was characterized using viral metagenomics and RT-PCR. This sapelovirus strain showed only 64 % nucleotide identity in the VP1 region to its closest PSV-1 relative. Complete VP1 sequence-based epidemiological investigations of PSVs circulating in Hungary showed the presence of diverse strains found in high prevalence in enteric and respiratory samples collected from both asymptomatic and paraplegic pigs from 12 swine farms. Virus isolation attempts using PK-15 cell cultures were successful in 3/8 cases for the classic but not the novel PSV genotype. Sequence comparisons of faeces and isolate strains derived VP1 showed that cultured PSV strains not always represent the dominant PSVs found .

Funding
This study was supported by the:
  • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (Award R01-HL105770)
    • Principle Award Recipient: Ákos Boros
  • Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (Award FK134311)
    • Principle Award Recipient: Not Applicable
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.001410
2020-04-07
2021-05-11
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/101/6/609.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.001410&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Zell R, Delwart E, Gorbalenya AE, Hovi T, King AMQ et al. ICTV virus taxonomy profile: Picornaviridae. J Gen Virol 2017; 98:2421–2422 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Lamont PH, Betts AO. Studies on enteroviruses of the Pig—IV: the isolation in tissue culture of a possible enteric cytopathogenic swine orphan (ECSO) virus (V 13) from the faeces of a pig. Res Vet Sci 1960; 1:152–161
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Szent-Ivanyi T. Studies on swine enteroviruses. I. Isolation and serological grouping of strains. Acta Microbiol Acad Sci Hung 1963; 10:125[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Zell R, Krumbholz A, Henke A, Wurm R, Wutzler P et al. Chapter II: Molecular diversity of porcine and simian picornaviruses. In Willams R. editor Focus on Genome Research C. R. Nova Science Publisher; 2004 pp 39–80
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Lan D, Ji W, Yang S, Cui L, Yang Z et al. Isolation and characterization of the first Chinese porcine sapelovirus strain. Arch Virol 2011; 156:1567–1574 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Kim D-S, Kang M-I, Son K-Y, Bak G-Y, Park J-G et al. Pathogenesis of Korean SapelovirusA in piglets and chicks. J Gen Virol 2016; 97:2566–2574 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Yang T, Li R, Peng W, Ge M, Luo B et al. First isolation and genetic characteristics of porcine sapeloviruses in Hunan, China. Arch Virol 2017; 162:1589–1597 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Huang J, Gentry RF, Zarkower A. Experimental infection of pregnant sows with porcine enteroviruses. Am J Vet Res 1980; 41:469–473[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Kumari S, Ray PK, Singh R, Desingu PA, Varshney R et al. Pathological and molecular investigation of porcine sapelovirus infection in naturally affected Indian pigs. Microb Pathog 2019; 127:320–325 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Sunaga F, Masuda T, Ito M, Akagami M, Naoi Y et al. Complete genomic analysis and molecular characterization of Japanese porcine sapeloviruses. Virus Genes 2019; 55:198–208 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Schock A, Gurrala R, Fuller H, Foyle L, Dauber M et al. Investigation into an outbreak of encephalomyelitis caused by a neuroinvasive porcine sapelovirus in the United Kingdom. Vet Microbiol 2014; 172:381–389 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Arruda PHE, Arruda BL, Schwartz KJ, Vannucci F, Resende T et al. Detection of a novel sapelovirus in central nervous tissue of pigs with polioencephalomyelitis in the USA. Transbound Emerg Dis 2017; 64:311–315 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Krumbholz A, Dauber M, Henke A, Birch-Hirschfeld E, Knowles NJ et al. Sequencing of porcine enterovirus groups II and III reveals unique features of both virus groups. J Virol 2002; 76:5813–5821 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Oberste MS, Maher K, Pallansch MA. Genomic evidence that simian virus 2 and six other simian picornaviruses represent a new genus in Picornaviridae. Virology 2003; 314:283–293 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Hellen CUT, de Breyne S. A distinct group of hepacivirus/pestivirus-like internal ribosomal entry sites in members of diverse picornavirus genera: evidence for modular exchange of functional noncoding RNA elements by recombination. J Virol 2007; 81:5850–5863 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Son K-Y, Kim D-S, Kwon J, Choi J-S, Kang M-I et al. Full-Length genomic analysis of Korean porcine Sapelovirus strains. PLoS One 2014; 9:e107860 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Cordey S, Gerlach D, Junier T, Zdobnov EM, Kaiser L et al. The cis-acting replication elements define human enterovirus and rhinovirus species. RNA 2008; 14:1568–1578 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Bai H, Liu J, Fang L, Kataoka M, Takeda N et al. Characterization of porcine sapelovirus isolated from Japanese swine with PLC/PRF/5 cells. Transbound Emerg Dis 2018; 65:727–734 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Oberste MS, Maher K, Pallansch MA. Molecular phylogeny and proposed classification of the simian picornaviruses. J Virol 2002; 76:1244–1251 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Yang T, Yu X, Yan M, Luo B, Li R et al. Molecular characterization of porcine sapelovirus in Hunan, China. J Gen Virol 2017; 98:2738–2747 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Vilar MJ, Peralta B, García-Bocanegra I, Simon-Grifé M, Bensaid A et al. Distribution and genetic characterization of enterovirus G and Sapelovirus A in six Spanish swine herds. Virus Res 2016; 215:42–49 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Piorkowski G, Capai L, Falchi A, Casabianca F, Maestrini O et al. First identification and genomic characterization of a porcine Sapelovirus from Corsica, France, 2017. Microbiol Resour Announc 2018; 7:e01049–18 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Tassoni L, Zamperin G, Monne I, Beato MS. Nearly complete genome sequence of a Sapelovirus a strain identified in swine in Italy. Microbiol Resour Announc 2019; 8:e00481–19 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Phan TG, Vo NP, Boros Ákos, Pankovics P, Reuter G et al. The viruses of wild pigeon droppings. PLoS One 2013; 8:e72787 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Boros A, Pankovics P, Simmonds P, Reuter G, positive-sense N et al. +ssRNA) virus with di-cistronic genome from intestinal content of freshwater carp (Cyprinus carpio). PLoS One 2011; 6:e29145
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Boros Ákos, Pankovics P, Knowles NJ, Reuter G. Natural interspecies recombinant bovine/porcine enterovirus in sheep. J Gen Virol 2012; 93:1941–1951 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Nicholas KB, Nicholas HB. GeneDoc: a tool for editing and annotating multiple sequence alignments. National resource for biomedical Supercomputing.
  28. Kumar S, Stecher G, Tamura K. MEGA7: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets. Mol Biol Evol 2016; 33:1870–1874 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Zuker M. Mfold web server for nucleic acid folding and hybridization prediction. Nucleic Acids Res 2003; 31:3406–3415 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Darty K, Denise A, Ponty Y. VARNA: Interactive drawing and editing of the RNA secondary structure. Bioinformatics 2009; 25:1974–1975 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Martin DP, Murrell B, Golden M, Khoosal A, Muhire B. RDP4: Detection and analysis of recombination patterns in virus genomes. Virus Evol 2015; 1:vev003 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Lole KS, Bollinger RC, Paranjape RS, Gadkari D, Kulkarni SS et al. Full-length human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genomes from subtype C-infected seroconverters in India, with evidence of intersubtype recombination. J Virol 1999; 73:152–160 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Edington N, Christofinis GJ, Betts AO. Pathogenicity of Talfan and Konratice strains of Teschen virus in gnotobiotic pigs. J Comp Pathol 1972; 82:393–399 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Vreman S, Caliskan N, Harders F, Boonstra J, Peperkamp K et al. Two novel porcine teschovirus strains as the causative agents of encephalomyelitis in the Netherlands. BMC Vet Res 2020; 16:1–7 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Knowles NJ, Buckley LS, Pereira HG. Classification of porcine enteroviruses by antigenic analysis and cytopathic effects in tissue culture: description of 3 new serotypes. Arch Virol 1979; 62:201–208 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Dauber M. Identification of group I porcine enteroviruses by monoclonal antibodies in cell culture. Vet Microbiol 1999; 67:1–12 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Chen Q, Zheng Y, Guo B, Zhang J, Yoon K-J et al. Complete genome sequence of porcine sapelovirus strain USA/IA33375/2015 identified in the United States. Genome Announc 2016; 4:e01055–16 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Meyer RC, Woods GT, Simon J. Pneumonitis in an enterovirus infection in swine. J Comp Pathol 1966; 76:397–405 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Forman AJ, Pass DA, Connaughton ID. The characterisation and pathogenicity of porcine enteroviruses isolated in Victoria. Aust Vet J 1982; 58:136–142 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Biobaku KT, Amid SA. Predisposing factors associated with diseases in animals in Nigeria and possible botanical immunostimulants and immunomodulators: a review. Bangl J Vet Med 2018; 16:87–101 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Kim D-S, Son K-Y, Koo K-M, Kim J-Y, Alfajaro MM et al. Porcine Sapelovirus uses α2,3-Linked sialic acid on GD1a ganglioside as a receptor. J Virol 2016; 90:4067–4077 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.001410
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.001410
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

Supplementary material 1

PDF

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error