1887

Abstract

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important disease of chickens caused by ILT virus (ILTV). We used the Australian SA2 and A20 vaccine strains of ILTV to determine tissue distribution and excretion characteristics of ILTV in specific-pathogen-free chickens and to determine whether ILTV is readily detectable in environmental samples such as faeces, bedding material and dust using real-time quantitative PCR. Three groups of 10 freshly hatched chicks were placed in isolators and infected orally with high doses of the two strains of vaccine virus or left unchallenged as controls. Over a 28-day post-infection (p.i.) period, faecal and serum samples were collected at frequent intervals from six individually identified chickens in each group. Dust and litter samples from the isolators were collected less frequently. Tissue samples were collected from three to four sacrificed or dead/euthanized birds at 6, 14 and 28 days p.i. Infection resulted in clinical ILT, a pronounced antibody response and sustained qPCR detection of the viral genome in the trachea, Harderian gland, lung and kidney up to 28 days p.i. A high level of the viral genome was also detected in faeces between 2 and 7 days p.i., declining by about approximately four orders of magnitude to low, but detectable, levels at 21 and 28 days p.i. The finding of high-level shedding of ILTV in faeces warrants further investigation into the epidemiological role of this, and the sustained high levels of ILTV observed in dust suggest that it may be a useful sample material for monitoring ILTV status in flocks.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.000268
2015-11-01
2019-10-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/96/11/3338.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.000268&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Andreasen J.R. Jr, Glisson J.R., Villegas P.. ( 1990;). Differentiation of vaccine strains and Georgia field isolates of infectious laryngotracheitis virus by their restriction endonuclease fragment patterns. Avian Dis 34: 646–656 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bagust T.J., Calnek B.W., Fahey K.J.. ( 1986;). Gallid-1 herpesvirus infection in the chicken. 3. Reinvestigation of the pathogenesis of infectious laryngotracheitis in acute and early post-acute respiratory disease. Avian Dis 30: 179–190 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bagust T.J., Jones R.C., Guy J.S.. ( 2000;). Avian infectious laryngotracheitis. Rev Sci Tech 19: 483–492 [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Beach J.R.. ( 1931;). A bacteriological study of Infectious Laryngotracheitis of chickens. J Exp Med 54: 801–808 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Blacker H.P., Kirkpatrick N.C., Rubite A., O'Rourke D., Noormohammadi A.H.. ( 2011;). Epidemiology of recent outbreaks of infectious laryngotracheitis in poultry in Australia. Aust Vet J 89: 89–94 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Callison S.A., Riblet S.M., Oldoni I., Sun S., Zavala G., Williams S., Resurreccion R.S., Spackman E., García M.. ( 2007;). Development and validation of a real-time Taqman PCR assay for the detection and quantitation of infectious laryngotracheitis virus in poultry. J Virol Methods 139: 31–38 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Calnek B.W., Fahey K.J., Bagust T.J.. ( 1986;). In vitro infection studies with infectious laryngotracheitis virus. Avian Dis 30: 327–336 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Clarke J.K., Robertson G.M., Purcell D.A.. ( 1980;). Spray vaccination of chickens using infectious laryngotracheitis virus. Aust Vet J 56: 424–428 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Coppo M.J., Devlin J.M., Noormohammadi A.H.. ( 2012a;). Comparison of the replication and transmissibility of an infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccine delivered via eye-drop or drinking-water. Avian Pathol 41: 99–106 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Coppo M.J., Devlin J.M., Noormohammadi A.H.. ( 2012b;). Comparison of the replication and transmissibility of two infectious laryngotracheitis virus chicken embryo origin vaccines delivered via drinking water. Avian Pathol 41: 195–202 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Cover M., Benton W.. ( 1958;). The biological variation of the infectious laryngotracheitis virus. Avian Dis 2: 375–383 [CrossRef].
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Creelan J.L., Calvert V.M., Graham D.A., McCullough S.J.. ( 2006;). Rapid detection and characterization from field cases of infectious laryngotracheitis virus by real-time polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Avian Pathol 35: 173–179 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Davison A.J., Eberle R., Hayward G.S., McGeoch D.J., Minson A.C., Pellett P.E., Roizman B., Studdert M.J., Thiry E.. ( 2005;). Herpesviridae. . In Virus Taxonomy: Eighth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, pp. 193–212. Edited by Fauquet C. M., Mayo M. A., Maniloff J., Desselberger U., Ball L. A.. San Diego, CA, USA: Elsevier Academic Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Dufour-Zavala L.. ( 2008;). Epizootiology of infectious laryngotracheitis and presentation of an industry control program. Avian Dis 52: 1–7 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Fahey K.J., Bagust T.J., York J.J.. ( 1983;). Laryngotracheitis herpesvirus infection in the chicken: the role of humoral antibody in immunity to a graded challenge infection. Avian Pathol 12: 505–514 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Gelenczei E.F., Marty E.W.. ( 1965;). Strain stability and immunologic characteristics of a tissue-culture-modified infectious laryngotracheitis virus. Avian Dis 9: 44–56 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Giambrone J.J., Fagbohun O., Macklin K.S.. ( 2008;). Management Practices to Reduce Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus in Poultry Litter. J Appl Poult Res 17: 64–68 [CrossRef].
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Guy J.S., Garcia M.. ( 2008;). Laryngotracheitis. . In Diseases of Poultry, 11th edn.., pp. 137–152. Edited by Saif Y. M., Barnes H. J., Glisson J. R., Fadley A. M., McDougald L. R., Swayne D. E.. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Guy J.S., Barnes H.J., Morgan L.M.. ( 1990;). Virulence of infectious laryngotracheitis viruses: comparison of modified-live vaccine viruses and North Carolina field isolates. Avian Dis 34: 106–113 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Guy J.S., Barnes H.J., Smith L.. ( 1991;). Increased virulence of modified-live infectious laryngotracheitis vaccine virus following bird-to-bird passage. Avian Dis 35: 348–355 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Hinshaw W., Jones E., Graybill H.. ( 1931;). A study of mortality and egg production in flocks affected with infectious laryngotracheitis. Poult Sci 10: 375–382 [CrossRef].
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Hitchner S.B., Fabricant J., Bagust T.J.. ( 1977;). A fluorescent-antibody study of the pathogenesis of infectious laryngotracheitis. Avian Dis 21: 185–194 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Jordan F.. ( 1958;). Some observations of infectious laryngotracheitis. Vet Rec 70: 605–610.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Jordan F.. ( 1966;). A review of the literature on infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT). Avian Dis 10: 1–26 [CrossRef].
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Kernohan G.. ( 1931;). Infectious laryngotracheitis in fowls. J Am Vet Med Assoc 78: 196–202.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Lee S.-W., Markham P.F., Coppo M.J., Legione A.R., Markham J.F., Noormohammadi A.H., Browning G.F., Ficorilli N., Hartley C.A., Devlin J.M.. ( 2012;). Attenuated vaccines can recombine to form virulent field viruses. Science 337: 188 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Linares J.A., Bickford A.A., Cooper G.L., Charlton B.R., Woolcock P.R.. ( 1994;). An outbreak of infectious laryngotracheitis in California broilers. Avian Dis 38: 188–192 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Mobini B.. ( 2012;). Histological and histochemical studies on the Harderian gland in native chickens. Vet Med (Praha) 57: 404–409.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Neff C., Sudler C., Hoop R.K.. ( 2008;). Characterization of western European field isolates and vaccine strains of avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus by restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analysis. Avian Dis 52: 278–283 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Ojkic D., Swinton J., Vallieres M., Martin E., Shapiro J., Sanei B., Binnington B.. ( 2006;). Characterization of field isolates of infectious laryngotracheitis virus from Ontario. Avian Pathol 35: 286–292 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Oldoni I., García M.. ( 2007;). Characterization of infectious laryngotracheitis virus isolates from the US by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism of multiple genome regions. Avian Pathol 36: 167–176 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Oldoni I., Rodríguez-Avila A., Riblet S., García M.. ( 2008;). Characterization of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) isolates from commercial poultry by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Avian Dis 52: 59–63 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Oldoni I., Rodríguez-Avila A., Riblet S.M., Zavala G., García M.. ( 2009;). Pathogenicity and growth characteristics of selected infectious laryngotracheitis virus strains from the United States. Avian Pathol 38: 47–53 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Ou S., Giambrone J., Macklin K.. ( 2011;). Infectious laryngotracheitis vaccine virus detection in water lines and effectiveness of sanitizers for inactivating the virus. J Appl Poult Res 20: 223–230 [CrossRef].
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Payne A.P.. ( 1994;). The harderian gland: a tercentennial review. J Anat 185: 1–49 [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Pulsford M., Stokes J.. ( 1953;). Infectious laryngotracheitis in South Australia: a note on its occurrence and a survey of the distribution of antibodies active against the virus. Aust Vet J 29: 8–12 [CrossRef].
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Purcell D.A., McFerran J.B.. ( 1969;). Influence of method of infection on the pathogenesis of infectious laryngotracheitis. J Comp Pathol 79: 285–291 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Purcell D.A., Surman P.G.. ( 1974;). Letter: Aerosol administration of the SA-2 vaccine strain of infectious laryngotracheitis virus. Aust Vet J 50: 419–420 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Robertson G.M., Egerton J.R.. ( 1981;). Replication of infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens following vaccination. Aust Vet J 57: 119–123 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Samberg Y., Aronovici I.. ( 1969;). The development of a vaccine against avian infectious laryngotracheitis. 1. Modification of a laryngotracheitis virus. Refu Vet 26: 54–59.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Sander J.E., Thayer S.G.. ( 1997;). Evaluation of ELISA titers to infectious laryngotracheitis. Avian Dis 41: 429–432 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Seddon H., Hart L.. ( 1935;). The Occurrence of Infectious Laryngo-Tracheitis in Fowls in New South Wales. Aust Vet J 11: 212–223 [CrossRef].
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Sellers H.S., García M., Glisson J.R., Brown T.P., Sander J.S., Guy J.S.. ( 2004;). Mild infectious laryngotracheitis in broilers in the southeast. Avian Dis 48: 430–436 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Tripathy D., Garcia M.. ( 1998;). Infectious laryngotracheitis. . In A Laboratory Manual for the Isolation and Identification of Avian Pathogens, 4th edn.., pp. 94–98. Edited by Swayne D. E., Glisson J. R., Jackwood M. W., Pearson J. E., Reed W. M.. Kennett Square, PA: American Association of Avian Pathologists;.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Walkden-Brown S.W., Islam A.F., Groves P.J., Rubite A., Sharpe S.M., Burgess S.K.. ( 2013;). Development, application, and results of routine monitoring of Marek's disease virus in broiler house dust using real-time quantitative PCR. Avian Dis 57: 544–554 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Wang L.-G., Ma J., Xue C.-Y., Wang W., Guo C., Chen F., Qin J.-P., Huang N.-H., Bi Y.-Z., Cao Y.-C.. ( 2013;). Dynamic distribution and tissue tropism of infectious laryngotracheitis virus in experimentally infected chickens. Arch Virol 158: 659–666 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Williams R.A., Bennett M., Bradbury J.M., Gaskell R.M., Jones R.C., Jordan F.T.. ( 1992;). Demonstration of sites of latency of infectious laryngotracheitis virus using the polymerase chain reaction. J Gen Virol 73: 2415–2420 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.000268
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.000268
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error