1887

Abstract

To study the evolutionary relationships among astroviruses, all available sequences for members of the family were collected. Phylogenetic analysis distinguished two deep-rooted groups: one comprising mammalian astroviruses, with ovine astrovirus being an outlier, and the other comprising avian astroviruses. All virus species as well as serotypes of human astroviruses represented individual lineages within the tree. All human viruses clustered together and separately from non-human viruses, which argue for their common evolutionary origin and against ongoing animal-to-human transmissions. The branching order of mammalian astroviruses was exactly the opposite of that of their host species, suggesting at least two cross-species transmissions involving pigs, cats and humans, possibly through intermediate hosts. Analysis of synonymous (Ds) versus non-synonymous (Da) distances revealed that negative selection is dominating in the evolution of astroviruses, with the Ds:Da ratios being up to 46 for the comparisons of the most closely related viruses. Phylogenetic analyses of all open reading frames (ORFs) based on Ds resulted in the loss of tree structures, with virus species – and in ORF2, even serotypes of human astroviruses – branching out from virtually a single node, suggesting their ancient separation. The strong selection against non-synonymous substitutions, the low number of which is, therefore, not proof of a recent separation between lineages, together with the position of the oldest available human astrovirus strain (1971) far from the common node of its serotype 4, suggest that intraserotype diversification originates from an earlier date.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-83-6-1397
2002-06-01
2019-10-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/83/6/0831397a.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-83-6-1397&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Belliot, G., Laveran, H. & Monroe, S. S. ( 1997; ). Detection and genetic differentiation of human astroviruses: phylogenetic grouping varies by coding region. Archives of Virology 142, 1323-1334.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Cornelissen, M., van den Burg, R., Zorgdrager, F., Lukashov, V. & Goudsmit, J. ( 1997; ). pol gene diversity of five human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes: evidence for naturally occurring mutations that contribute to drug resistance, limited recombination patterns, and common ancestry for subtypes B and D. Journal of Virology 71, 6348-6358.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Goudsmit, J. & Lukashov, V. V. ( 1999; ). Dating the origin of HIV-1 subtypes. Nature 400, 325-326.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Hall, T. A. ( 1999; ). BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symposium Series 41, 95-98.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Imada, T., Yamaguchi, S., Mase, M., Tsukamoto, K., Kubo, M. & Morooka, A. ( 2000; ). Avian nephritis virus (ANV) as a new member of the family Astroviridae and construction of infectious ANV cDNA. Journal of Virology 74, 8487-8493.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Jiang, B., Monroe, S. S., Koonin, E. V., Stine, S. E. & Glass, R. I. ( 1993; ). RNA sequence of astrovirus: distinctive genomic organization and a putative retrovirus-like ribosomal frameshifting signal that directs the viral replicase synthesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 90, 10539-10543.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Jonassen, C. M., Jonassen, T. O. & Grinde, B. ( 1998; ). A common RNA motif in the 3’ end of the genomes of astroviruses, avian infectious bronchitis virus and an equine rhinovirus. Journal of General Virology 79, 715-718.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Jonassen, C. M., Jonassen, T. O., Saif, Y. M., Snodgrass, D. R., Ushijima, H., Shimizu, M. & Grinde, B. ( 2001; ). Comparison of capsid sequences from human and animal astroviruses. Journal of General Virology 82, 1061-1067.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Koci, M. D., Seal, B. S. & Schultz-Cherry, S. ( 2000; ). Molecular characterization of an avian astrovirus. Journal of Virology 74, 6173-6177.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Kumar, S. & Hedges, S. B. ( 1998; ). A molecular timescale for vertebrate evolution. Nature 392, 917-920.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Kumar, S., Tamura, K. & Nei, M. (1993). Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (MEGA). Institute of Molecular Evolutionary Genetics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA.
  12. Lewis, T. L., Greenberg, H. B., Herrmann, J. E., Smith, L. S. & Matsui, S. M. ( 1994; ). Analysis of astrovirus serotype 1 RNA, identification of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase motif, and expression of a viral structural protein. Journal of Virology 68, 77-83.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Lukashov, V. V. & Goudsmit, J. ( 1997; ). Evolution of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype-specific V3 domain is confined to a sequence space with a fixed distance to the subtype consensus. Journal of Virology 71, 6332-6338.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Lukashov, V. V. & Goudsmit, J. ( 2001; ). Evolutionary relationships among parvoviruses: virus–host coevolution among autonomous primate parvoviruses and links between adeno-associated and avian parvoviruses. Journal of Virology 75, 2729-2740.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Lukashov, V. V., Kuiken, C. L. & Goudsmit, J. ( 1995; ). Intrahost human immunodeficiency virus type 1 evolution is related to length of the immunocompetent period. Journal of Virology 69, 6911-6916.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Lukashov, V. V., Kuiken, C. L., Vlahov, D., Coutinho, R. A. & Goudsmit, J. ( 1996; ). Evidence for HIV type 1 strains of U. S. intravenous drug users as founders of AIDS epidemic among intravenous drug users in northern Europe. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 12, 1179-1183.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Matsui, S. M. & Greenberg, H. B. ( 1996; ). Astroviruses. In Fields Virology , pp. 811-824. Edited by B. N. Fields, D. M. Knipe & P. M. Howley. Philadelphia:Lippincott–Raven.
  18. Mendez-Toss, M., Romero-Guido, P., Munguia, M. E., Mendez, E. & Arias, C. F. ( 2000; ). Molecular analysis of a serotype 8 human astrovirus genome. Journal of General Virology 81, 2891-2897.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Monceyron, C., Grinde, B. & Jonassen, T. O. ( 1997; ). Molecular characterisation of the 3′-end of the astrovirus genome. Archives of Virology 142, 699-706.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Oh, D. & Schreier, E. ( 2001; ). Molecular characterization of human astroviruses in Germany. Archives of Virology 146, 443-455.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Thompson, J. D., Higgins, D. G. & Gibson, T. J. ( 1994; ). CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Research 22, 4673-4680.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Walter, J. E., Mitchell, D. K., Guerrero, M. L., Berke, T., Matson, D. O., Monroe, S. S., Pickering, L. K. & Ruiz-Palacios, G. ( 2001; ). Molecular epidemiology of human astrovirus diarrhea among children from a periurban community of Mexico City. Journal of Infectious Diseases 183, 681-686.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Wang, Q. H., Kakizawa, J., Wen, L. Y., Shimizu, M., Nishio, O., Fang, Z. Y. & Ushijima, H. ( 2001; ). Genetic analysis of the capsid region of astroviruses. Journal of Medical Virology 64, 245-255.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Willcocks, M. M. & Carter, M. J. ( 1993; ). Identification and sequence determination of the capsid protein gene of human astrovirus serotype 1. FEMS Microbiology Letters 114, 1-7.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Willcocks, M. M., Kurtz, J. B., Lee, T. W. & Carter, M. J. ( 1995; ). Prevalence of human astrovirus serotype 4: capsid protein sequence and comparison with other strains. Epidemiology and Infection 114, 385-391.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-83-6-1397
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-83-6-1397
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error