1887
Preview this article:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Human immunodeficiency virus type 2, Page 1 of 1

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/jgv/83/6/0831253a-1.gif

There is no abstract available for this article.
Use the preview function to the left.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-83-6-1253
2002-06-01
2019-10-13
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/83/6/0831253a.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-83-6-1253&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Aaby, P., Poulsen, A. G., Larsen, O., Christiansen, C. B., Jensen, H., Melbye, M., Naucler, A. & Dias, F. ( 1997; ). Does HIV-2 protect against HIV-1 infection? AIDS 11, 939-940.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Adjorlolo-Johnson, G., De Cock, K. M., Ekpini, E., Vetter, K. M., Sibailly, T., Brattegaard, K., Yavo, D., Doorly, R., Whitaker, J. P., Kestens, L., Ou, C.-Y., George, J. R. & Gayle, H. ( 1994; ). Prospective comparison of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 and HIV-2 in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. The Journal of the American Medical Association 272, 462-466.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Akimoto, H., Kaneko, H., Sekigawa, I., Hashimoto, H., Kaneko, Y. & Yamamoto, N. ( 1998; ). Binding of HIV-2 envelope glycoprotein to CD8 molecules and related chemokine production. Immunology 95, 214-218.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Andersson, S., Norrgren, H., Dias, F., Biberfeld, G. & Albert, J. ( 1999; ). Molecular characterization of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and -2 in individuals from Guinea-Bissau with single or dual infections: predominance of a distinct HIV-1 subtype A/G recombinant in West Africa. Virology 262, 312-320.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Andersson, S., Norrgren, H., da Silva, Z., Biague, A., Bamba, S., Kwok, S., Christopherson, C., Biberfeld, G. & Albert, J. ( 2000; ). Plasma viral load in HIV-1 and HIV-2 singly and dually infected individuals in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa: significantly lower plasma virus set point in HIV-2 infection than in HIV-1 infection. Archives of Internal Medicine 160, 3286-3293.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Ariyoshi, K., Schim van der Loeff, M., Sabally, S., Cham, F., Corrah, T. & Whittle, H. ( 1997; ). Does HIV-2 infection provide cross-protection against HIV-1 infection? AIDS 11, 1053-1054.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Ariyoshi, K., Cham, F., Berry, N., Harding, E., Sabally, S., N’Gom, P. T., Ishikawa, K., Corrah, T., Tedder, R. & Whittle, H. ( 1998; ). Diagnosis of HIV-1/2 dual infection using dilution analysis of type-specific antibody. AIDS 12, 2504-2505.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Arya, S. K. & Gallo, R. C. ( 1996; ). Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2-mediated inhibition of HIV type 1: a new approach to gene therapy of HIV-infection. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 93, 4486-4491.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Babu, P. G., Saraswathi, N. K., Devapriya, F. & John, T. J. ( 1993; ). The detection of HIV-2 infection in southern India. Indian Journal of Medical Research 97, 49-52.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bagasra, O., Lavi, E., Bobroski, L., Khalili, K., Pestaner, J. P., Tawadros, R. & Pomerantz, R. J. ( 1996; ). Cellular reservoirs of HIV-1 in the central nervous system of infected individuals: identification by the combination of in situ polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. AIDS 10, 573-585.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Barin, F., M’Boup, S., Denis, F., Kanki, P., Allan, J. S., Lee, T. H. & Essex, M. ( 1985; ). Serological evidence for virus related to simian T-lymphotropic retrovirus III in residents of west Africa. Lancet 2, 1387-1389.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Berry, N., Ariyoshi, K., Jaffar, S., Sabally, S., Corrah, T., Tedder, R. & Whittle, H. ( 1998; ). Low peripheral blood viral HIV-2 RNA in individuals with high CD4 percentage differentiates HIV-2 from HIV-1 infection. Journal of Human Virology 1, 457-468.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Bertoletti, A., Cham, F., McAdam, S., Rostron, T., Rowland-Jones, S., Sabally, S., Corrah, T., Ariyoshi, K. & Whittle, H. ( 1998; ). Cytotoxic T cells from human immunodeficiency virus type 2-infected patients frequently cross-react with different human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clades. Journal of Virology 72, 2439-2448.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Bieniasz, P. D., Fridell, R. A., Aramori, I., Ferguson, S. S., Caron, M. G. & Cullen, B. R. ( 1997; ). HIV-1-induced cell fusion is mediated by multiple regions within both the viral envelope and the CCR-5 co-receptor. EMBO Journal 16, 2599-2609.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Bjorling, E., Scarlatti, G., von Gegerfelt, A., Albert, J., Biberfeld, G., Chiodi, F., Norrby, E. & Fenyo, E. M. ( 1993; ). Autologous neutralizing antibodies prevail in HIV-2 but not in HIV-1 infection. Virology 193, 528-530.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Blacklow, S. C., Lu, M. & Kim, P. S. ( 1995; ). A trimeric subdomain of the simian immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein. Biochemistry 34, 14955-14962.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Brelot, A., Heveker, N., Pleskoff, O., Sol., N. & Alizon, M. ( 1997; ). Role of the first and third extracellular domains of CXCR-4 in human immunodeficiency virus coreceptor activity. Journal of Virology 71, 4744-4751.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Brennan, R. O. & Durack, D. T. ( 1981; ). Gay compromise syndrome. Lancet 2, 1338-1339.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Bron, R., Klasse, P. J., Wilkinson, D., Clapham, P. R., Pelchen-Matthews, A., Power, C., Wells, T. N., Kim, J., Peiper, S. C., Hoxie, J. A. & Marsh, M. ( 1997; ). Promiscuous use of CC and CXC chemokine receptors in cell-to-cell fusion mediated by a human immunodeficiency virus type 2 envelope protein. Journal of Virology 71, 8405-8415.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Browning, C. M., Cagnon, L., Good, P. D., Rossi, J., Engelke, D. R. & Markovitz, D. M. ( 1999; ). Potent inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gene expression and virus production by an HIV-2 tat activation-response RNA decoy. Journal of Virology 73, 5191-5195.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Brun-Vezinet, F., Rey, M. A., Katlama, C., Girard, P. M., Roulot, D., Yeni, P., Lenoble, L., Clavel, F., Alizon, M., Gadelle, S. & Harzic, M. ( 1987; ). Lymphadenopathy-associated virus type 2 in AIDS and AIDS-related complex. Clinical and virological features in four patients. Lancet 1, 128-132.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Cavaco-Silva, P., Taveira, N. C., Rosado, L., Lourenco, M. H., Moniz-Pereira, J., Douglas, N. W., Daniels, R. S. & Santos-Ferreira, M. O. ( 1998; ). Virological and molecular demonstration of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 vertical transmission. Journal of Virology 72, 3418-3422.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. CDC ( 1982; ). Epidemiologic aspects of the current outbreak of Kaposi’s sarcoma and opportunistic infections. New England Journal of Medicine 306, 248–252.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Center, R. J., Schuck, P., Leapman, R. D., Arthur, L. O., Earl, P. L., Moss, B. & Lebowitz, J. ( 2001; ). Oligomeric structure of virion-associated and soluble forms of the simian immunodeficiency virus envelope protein in the prefusion activated conformation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 98, 14877-14882.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Chan, D. C., Fass, D., Berger, J. M. & Kim, P. S. ( 1997; ). Core structure of gp41 from the HIV envelope glycoprotein. Cell 89, 263-273.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Chen, Z., Telfier, P., Gettie, A., Reed, P., Zhang, L., Ho, D. D. & Marx, P. A. ( 1996; ). Genetic characterization of new West African simian immunodeficiency virus SIVsm: geographic clustering of household-derived SIV strains with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtypes and genetically diverse viruses from a single feral sooty mangabey troop. Journal of Virology 70, 3617-3627.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Chen, Z., Luckay, A., Sodora, D. L., Telfer, P., Reed, P., Gettie, A., Kanu, J. M., Sadek, R. F., Yee, J., Ho, D. D., Zhang, L. & Marx, P. A. ( 1997a; ). Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) seroprevalence and characterization of a distinct HIV-2 genetic subtype from the natural range of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected sooty mangabeys. Journal of Virology 71, 3953-3960.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Chen, Z., Zhou, P., Ho, D. D., Landau, N. R. & Marx, P. A. ( 1997b; ). Genetically divergent strains of simian immunodeficiency virus use CCR5 as a coreceptor for entry. Journal of Virology 71, 2705-2714.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Chen, Z., Gettie, A., Ho, D. D. & Marx, P. A. ( 1998; ). Primary SIVsm isolates use the CCR5 coreceptor from sooty mangabeys naturally infected in West Africa: a comparison of coreceptor usage of primary SIVsm, HIV-2, and SIVmac. Virology 246, 113-124.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Choe, H., Farzan, M., Sun, Y., Sullivan, N., Rollins, B., Ponath, P. D., Wu, L., Mackay, C. R., LaRosa, G., Newman, W., Gerard, N., Gerard, C. & Sodroski, J. ( 1996; ). The β-chemokine receptors CCR3 and CCR5 facilitate infection by primary HIV-1 isolates. Cell 85, 1135-1148.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Clapham, P. R., McKnight, A. & Weiss, R. A. ( 1992; ). Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 infection and fusion of CD4-negative human cell lines: induction and enhancement by soluble CD4. Journal of Virology 66, 3531-3537.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Clark, N. M., Dieng Sarr, A., Sankale, J. L., Kanki, P. J., Kazanjian, P., Winfield, R. & Markovitz, D. M. ( 1998; ). Immunologic and virologic response of HIV-2 infection to antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 12, 2506-2507.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Clavel, F., Guetard, D., Brun-Vezinet, F., Chamaret, S., Rey, M. A., Santos-Ferreira, M. O., Laurent, A. G., Dauguet, C., Katlama, C., Rouzioux, C., Klatzmann, D., Champalimaud, J. L. & Montagnier, L. ( 1986; ). Isolation of a new human retrovirus from West African patients with AIDS. Science 233, 343-346.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Cocchi, F., DeVico, A. L., Garzino-Demo, A., Cara, A., Gallo, R. C. & Lusso, P. ( 1996; ). The V3 domain of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein is critical for chemokine-mediated blockade of infection. Nature Medicine 2, 1244-1247.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Connor, R. I., Sheridan, K. E., Ceradini, D., Choe, S. & Landau, N. R. ( 1997; ). Change in coreceptor use correlates with disease progression in HIV-1 infected individuals. Journal of Experimental Medicine 185, 621-628.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Daniel, M. D., Letvin, N. L., King, N. W., Kannagi, M., Sehgal, P. K., Hunt, R. D., Kanki, P. J., Essex, M. & Desrosiers, R. C. ( 1985; ). Isolation of T-cell tropic HTLV-III-like retrovirus from macaques. Science 228, 1201-1204.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Davis, K. C., Horsburgh, C. R.Jr, Hasiba, U., Schocket, A. L. & Kirkpatrick, C. H. ( 1983; ). Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in a patient with hemophilia. Annals of Internal Medicine 98, 284-286.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Deng, H. K., Unutmaz, D., KewalRamani, V. N. & Littman, D. R. ( 1997; ). Expression cloning of new receptors used by simian and human immunodeficiency viruses. Nature 388, 296-300.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Dern, K., Rubsamen-Waigmann, H. & Unger, R. E. ( 2001; ). Inhibition of HIV type 1 replication by simultaneous infection of peripheral blood lymphocytes with human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 17, 295-309.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. de Roda Husman, A. M., van Rij, R. P., Blaak, H., Broersen, S. & Schuitemaker, H. ( 1999; ). Adaptation to promiscuous usage of chemokine receptors is not a prerequisite for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 disease progression. Journal of Infectious Diseases 180, 1106-1115.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Desrosiers, R. C. ( 1990; ). The simian immunodeficiency viruses. Annual Review of Immunology 8, 557-578.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Dumonceaux, J., Nisole, S., Chanel, C., Quivet, L., Amara, A., Baleux, F., Briand, P. & Hazan, U. ( 1998; ). Spontaneous mutations in the env gene of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 NDK isolate are associated with a CD4-independent entry phenotype. Journal of Virology 72, 512-519.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Edinger, A. L., Mankowski, J. L., Doranz, B. J., Margulies, B. J., Lee, B., Rucker, J., Sharron, M., Hoffman, T. L., Berson, J. F., Zink, M. C., Hirsch, V. M., Clements, J. E. & Doms, R. W. ( 1997; ). CD4-independent, CCR5-dependent infection of brain capillary endothelial cells by a neurovirulent simian immunodeficiency virus strain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 94, 14742-14747.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Edinger, A. L., Blanpain, C., Kunstman, K. J., Wolinsky, S. M., Parmentier, M. & Doms, R. W. ( 1999; ). Functional dissection of CCR5 coreceptor function through the use of CD4-independent simian immunodeficiency virus strains. Journal of Virology 73, 4062-4073.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Edwards, T. G., Hoffman, T. L., Baribaud, F., Wyss, S., LaBranche, C. C., Romano, J., Adkinson, J., Sharron, M., Hoxie, J. A. & Doms, R. W. ( 2001; ). Relationships between CD4 independence, neutralization sensitivity, and exposure of a CD4-induced epitope in a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope protein. Journal of Virology 75, 5230-5239.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Endres, M. J., Clapham, P. R., Marsh, M., Ahuja, M., Turner, J. D., McKnight, A., Thomas, J. F., Stoebenau-Haggarty, B., Choe, S., Vance, P. J., Wells, T. N., Power, C. A., Sutterwala, S. S., Doms, R. W., Landau, N. R. & Hoxie, J. A. ( 1996; ). CD4-independent infection by HIV-2 is mediated by fusin/CXCR4. Cell 87, 745-756.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Epstein, L. G., Kuiken, C., Blumberg, B. M., Hartman, S., Sharer, L. R., Clement, M. & Goudsmit, J. ( 1991; ). HIV-1 V3 domain variation in brain and spleen of children with AIDS: tissue-specific evolution within host-determined quasispecies. Virology 180, 583-590.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Fenyo, E. M. & Putkonen, P. ( 1996; ). Broad cross-neutralizing activity in serum is associated with slow progression and low risk of transmission in primate lentivirus infections. Immunology Letters 51, 95-99.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Fletcher, T. M.III, Brichacek, B., Sharova, N., Newman, M. A., Stivahtis, G., Sharp, P. M., Emerman, M., Hahn, B. H. & Stevenson, M. ( 1996; ). Nuclear import and cell cycle arrest functions of the HIV-1 Vpr protein are encoded by two separate genes in HIV-2/SIVsm. EMBO Journal 15, 6155-6165.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Freed, E. O., Myers, D. J. & Risser, R. ( 1989; ). Mutational analysis of the cleavage sequence of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein precursor gp160. Journal of Virology 63, 4670-4675.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Gao, F., Yue, L., White, A. T., Pappas, P. G., Barchue, J., Hanson, A. P., Greene, B. M., Sharp, P. M., Shaw, G. M. & Hahn, B. H. ( 1992; ). Human infection by genetically diverse SIVSM-related HIV-2 in West Africa. Nature 358, 495-499.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Gao, F., Yue, L., Robertson, D. L., Hill, S. C., Hui, H., Biggar, R. J., Neequaye, A. E., Whelan, T. M., Ho, D. D., Shaw, G. M., Sharp, P. M. & Hahn, B. H. ( 1994; ). Genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 2: evidence for distinct sequence subtypes with differences in virus biology. Journal of Virology 68, 7433-7447.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Gao, F., Bailes, E., Robertson, D. L., Chen, Y., Rodenburg, C. M., Michael, S. F., Cummins, L. B., Arthur, L. O., Peeters, M., Shaw, G. M., Sharp, P. M. & Hahn, B. H. ( 1999; ). Origin of HIV-1 in the chimpanzee Pan troglodytes troglodytes. Nature 397, 436-441.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Ghys, P. D., Fransen, K., Diallo, M. O., Ettiegne-Traore, V., Coulibaly, I. M., Yeboue, K. M., Kalish, M. L., Maurice, C., Whitaker, J. P., Greenberg, A. E. & Laga, M. ( 1997; ). The associations between cervicovaginal HIV shedding, sexually transmitted diseases and immunosuppression in female sex workers in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire. AIDS 11, F85-93.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Gibbs, J. S., Lackner, A. A., Lang, S. M., Simon, M. A., Sehgal, P. K., Daniel, M. D. & Desrosiers, R. C. ( 1995; ). Progression to AIDS in the absence of a gene for Vpr or Vpx. Journal of Virology 69, 2378-2383.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Gotch, F., McAdam, S. N., Allsopp, C. E., Gallimore, A., Elvin, J., Kieny, M. P., Hill, A. V., McMichael, A. J. & Whittle, H. C. ( 1993; ). Cytotoxic T cells in HIV2 seropositive Gambians. Identification of a virus-specific MHC-restricted peptide epitope. Journal of Immunology 151, 3361-3369.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Gottlieb, M. S., Schroff, R., Schanker, H. M., Weisman, J. D., Fan, P. T., Wolf, R. A. & Saxon, A. ( 1981; ). Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and mucosal candidiasis in previously healthy homosexual men: evidence of a new acquired cellular immunodeficiency. New England Journal of Medicine 305, 1425-1431.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Greenberg, A. E., Wiktor, S. Z., DeCock, K. M., Smith, P., Jaffe, H. W. & Dondero, T. J.Jr ( 1996; ). HIV-2 and natural protection against HIV-1 infection. Science 272, 1959-1960.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Guillemin, G., Croitoru, J., Boussin, F. D., Le Grand, R., Franck-Duchenne, M. & Dormont, D. ( 1998; ). Astrocytes and lentivirus infection in an experimental model of macaque infected with SIVmac251. Comptes Rendus des Séances de la Société de Biologie et de Ses Filiales 192, 179-186.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Guillon, C., van der Ende, M. E., Boers, P. H., Gruters, R. A., Schutten, M. & Osterhaus, A. D. ( 1998; ). Coreceptor usage of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 primary isolates and biological clones is broad and does not correlate with their syncytium-inducing capacities. Journal of Virology 72, 6260-6263.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Henrickson, R. V., Maul, D. H., Osborn, K. G., Sever, J. L., Madden, D. L., Ellingsworth, L. R., Anderson, J. H., Lowenstine, L. J. & Gardner, M. B. ( 1983; ). Epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency in rhesus monkeys. Lancet 1, 388-390.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Hill, C. M., Deng, H., Unutmaz, D., Kewalramani, V. N., Bastiani, L., Gorny, M. K., Zolla-Pazner, S. & Littman, D. R. ( 1997; ). Envelope glycoproteins from human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 and simian immunodeficiency virus can use human CCR5 as a coreceptor for viral entry and make direct CD4-dependent interactions with this chemokine receptor. Journal of Virology 71, 6296-6304.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Hirsch, V. M., Olmsted, R. A., Murphey-Corb, M., Purcell, R. H. & Johnson, P. R. ( 1989; ). An African primate lentivirus (SIVsm) closely related to HIV-2. Nature 339, 389-392.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Hoffman, T. L., LaBranche, C. C., Zhang, W., Canziani, G., Robinson, J., Chaiken, I., Hoxie, J. A. & Doms, R. W. ( 1999; ). Stable exposure of the coreceptor-binding site in a CD4-independent HIV-1 envelope protein. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 96, 6359-6364.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Huang, Y., Paxton, W. A., Wolinsky, S. M., Neumann, A. U., Zhang, L., He, T., Kang, S., Ceradini, D., Jin, Z., Yazdanbakhsh, K., Kunstman, K., Erickson, D., Dragon, E., Landau, N. R., Phair, J., Ho, D. D. & Koup, R. A. ( 1996; ). The role of a mutant CCR5 allele in HIV-1 transmission and disease progression. Nature Medicine 2, 1240-1243.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Ichiyama, K., Akimoto, H., Neoh, L. P., Takeda-Hirokawa, N., Kaneko, H., Hishikawa, T., Hashimoto, H., Hirose, S., Kaneko, Y., Yamamoto, N. & Sekigawa, I. ( 1999; ). HIV type 2 can bind to CD8 molecules but does not infect CD8+ T cells. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 15, 687-688.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Isaka, Y., Sato, A., Miki, S., Kawauchi, S., Sakaida, H., Hori, T., Uchiyama, T., Adachi, A., Hayami, M., Fujiwara, T. & Yoshie, O. ( 1999; ). Small amino acid changes in the V3 loop of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 determine the coreceptor usage for CXCR4 and CCR5. Virology 264, 237-243.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Isaka, Y., Miki, S., Kawauchi, S., Suyama, A., Sugimoto, H., Adachi, A., Miura, T., Hayami, M., Yoshie, O., Fujiwara, T. & Sato, A. ( 2001; ). A single amino acid change at Leu-188 in the reverse transcriptase of HIV-2 and SIV renders them sensitive to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Archives of Virology 146, 743-755.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Ishikawa, K., Fransen, K., Ariyoshi, K., Nkengasong, J. N., Janssens, W., Heyndrickx, L., Whittle, H., Diallo, M. O., Ghys, P. D., Coulibaly, I. M., Greenberg, A. E., Piedade, J., Canas-Ferreira, W. & van der Groen, G. ( 1998; ). Improved detection of HIV-2 proviral DNA in dually seroreactive individuals by PCR. AIDS 12, 1419-1425.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Itescu, S., Simonelli, P. F., Winchester, R. J. & Ginsberg, H. S. ( 1994; ). Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains in the lungs of infected individuals evolve independently from those in peripheral blood and are highly conserved in the C-terminal region of the envelope V3 loop. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 91, 11378-11382.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Ivey-Hoyle, M., Culp, J. S., Chaikin, M. A., Hellmig, B. D., Matthews, T. J., Sweet, R. W. & Rosenberg, M. ( 1991; ). Envelope glycoproteins from biologically diverse isolates of immunodeficiency viruses have widely different affinities for CD4. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 88, 512-516.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Kanbe, K., Shimizu, N., Soda, Y., Takagishi, K. & Hoshino, H. ( 1999; ). A CXC chemokine receptor, CXCR5/BLR1, is a novel and specific coreceptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 2. Virology 265, 264-273.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Kanki, P. J., McLane, M. F., King, N. W.Jr, Letvin, N. L., Hunt, R. D., Sehgal, P., Daniel, M. D., Desrosiers, R. C. & Essex, M. ( 1985; ). Serologic identification and characterization of a macaque T-lymphotropic retrovirus closely related to HTLV-III. Science 228, 1199-1201.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Kanki, P. J., Travers, K. U., MBoup, S., Hsieh, C. C., Marlink, R. G., Gueye, N. A., Siby, T., Thior, I., Hernandez-Avila, M., Sankale, J. L., Ndoye, I. & Essex, M. E. ( 1994; ). Slower heterosexual spread of HIV-2 than HIV-1. Lancet 343, 943-946.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Kerkau, T., Bacik, I., Bennink, J. R., Yewdell, J. W., Hunig, T., Schimpl, A. & Schubert, U. ( 1997; ). The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpu protein interferes with an early step in the biosynthesis of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. Journal of Experimental Medicine 185, 1295-1305.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Kledal, T. N., Rosenkilde, M. M., Coulin, F., Simmons, G., Johnsen, A. H., Alouani, S., Power, C. A., Luttichau, H. R., Gerstoft, J., Clapham, P. R., Clark-Lewis, I., Wells, T. N. C. & Schwartz, T. W. ( 1997; ). A broad-spectrum chemokine antagonist encoded by Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Science 277, 1656-1659.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Kokkotou, E. G., Sankale, J. L., Mani, I., Gueye-Ndiaye, A., Schwartz, D., Essex, M. E., Mboup, S. & Kanki, P. J. ( 2000; ). In vitro correlates of HIV-2-mediated HIV-1 protection. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 97, 6797-6802.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Kolchinsky, P., Mirzabekov, T., Farzan, M., Kiprilov, E., Cayabyab, M., Mooney, L. J., Choe, H. & Sodroski, J. ( 1999; ). Adaptation of a CCR5-using, primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolate for CD4-independent replication. Journal of Virology 73, 8120-8126.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Kuiken, C., Foley, B., Hahn, B., Marx, P., McCutchan, F., Mellors, J. W., Mullins, J., Wolinsky, S. & Korber, B. (1999). A compilation and analysis of nucleic acid and amino acid sequences. In Human Retroviruses and AIDS. Los Alamos, New Mexico: Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory.
  80. Kulkarni, S., Thakar, M., Rodrigues, J. & Banerjee, K. ( 1992; ). HIV-2 antibodies in serum samples from Maharashtra state. Indian Journal of Medical Research 95, 213-215.
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Kwong, P. D., Wyatt, R., Robinson, J., Sweet, R. W., Sodroski, J. & Hendrickson, W. A. ( 1998; ). Structure of an HIV gp120 envelope glycoprotein in complex with the CD4 receptor and a neutralizing human antibody. Nature 393, 648-659.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  82. LaBranche, C. C., Hoffman, T. L., Romano, J., Haggarty, B. S., Edwards, T. G., Matthews, T. J., Doms, R. W. & Hoxie, J. A. ( 1999; ). Determinants of CD4-independence for a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variant map outside regions required for coreceptor specificity. Journal of Virology 73, 10310-10319.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Langley, C. L., Benga-De, E., Critchlow, C. W., Ndoye, I., Mbengue-Ly, M. D., Kuypers, J., Woto-Gaye, G., Mboup, S., Bergeron, C., Holmes, K. K. & Kiviat, N. B. ( 1996; ). HIV-1, HIV-2, human papillomavirus infection and cervical neoplasia in high-risk African women. AIDS 10, 413-417.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Lasky, L. A., Nakamura, G., Smith, D. H., Fennie, C., Shimasaki, C., Patzer, E., Berman, P., Gregory, T. & Capon, D. J. ( 1987; ). Delineation of a region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 glycoprotein critical for interaction with the CD4 receptor. Cell 50, 975-985.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Layne, S. P., Merges, M. J., Dembo, M., Spouge, J. L. & Nara, P. L. ( 1990; ). HIV requires multiple gp120 molecules for CD4-mediated infection. Nature 346, 277-279.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Le Gall, S., Erdtmann, L., Benichou, S., Berlioz-Torrent, C., Liu, L., Benarous, R., Heard, J. M. & Schwartz, O. ( 1998; ). Nef interacts with the mu subunit of clathrin adaptor complexes and reveals a cryptic sorting signal in MHC I molecules. Immunity 8, 483-495.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Letvin, N. L., Eaton, K. A., Aldrich, W. R., Sehgal, P. K., Blake, B. J., Schlossman, S. F., King, N. W. & Hunt, R. D. ( 1983; ). Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in a colony of macaque monkeys. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 80, 2718-2722.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Li, S., Juarez, J., Alali, M., Dwyer, D., Collman, R., Cunningham, A. & Naif, H. M. ( 1999; ). Persistent CCR5 utilization and enhanced macrophage tropism by primary blood human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates from advanced stages of disease and comparison to tissue-derived isolates. Journal of Virology 73, 9741-9755.
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Lin, G., Lee, B., Haggarty, B. S., Doms, R. W. & Hoxie, J. A. ( 2001; ). CD4-independent use of rhesus CCR5 by human immunodeficiency virus type 2 implicates an electrostatic interaction between the CCR5 N terminus and the gp120 C4 domain. Journal of Virology 75, 10766-10778.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Liu, R., Paxton, W. A., Choe, S., Ceradini, D., Martin, S. R., Horuk, R., MacDonald, M. E., Stuhlmann, H., Koup, R. A. & Landau, N. R. ( 1996; ). Homozygous defect in HIV-1 coreceptor accounts for resistance of some multiply-exposed individuals to HIV-1 infection. Cell 86, 367-377.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Liu, H. Y., Soda, Y., Shimizu, N., Haraguchi, Y., Jinno, A., Takeuchi, Y. & Hoshino, H. ( 2000; ). CD4-Dependent and CD4-independent utilization of coreceptors by human immunodeficiency viruses type 2 and simian immunodeficiency viruses. Virology 278, 276-288.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Lu, M., Blacklow, S. C. & Kim, P. S. ( 1995; ). A trimeric structural domain of the HIV-1 transmembrane glycoprotein. Nature Structural Biology 2, 1075-1082.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Lucas, S. B., Hounnou, A., Peacock, C., Beaumel, A., Djomand, G., N’Gbichi, J. M., Yeboue, K., Honde, M., Diomande, M., Giordano, C., Doorly, R., Brattefaard, D., Kestens, L., Smithwick, R., Kadio, A., Ezani, N., Yapi, A. & De Cock, K. M. ( 1993; ). The mortality and pathology of HIV infection in a West African city. AIDS 7, 1569-1579.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  94. McCune, J. M., Rabin, L. B., Feinberg, M. B., Lieberman, M., Kosek, J. C., Reyes, G. R. & Weissman, I. L. ( 1988; ). Endoproteolytic cleavage of gp160 is required for the activation of human immunodeficiency virus. Cell 53, 55-67.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  95. McKnight, A., Dittmar, M. T., Moniz-Periera, J., Ariyoshi, K., Reeves, J. D., Hibbitts, S., Whitby, D., Aarons, E., Proudfoot, A. E., Whittle, H. & Clapham, P. R. ( 1998; ). A broad range of chemokine receptors are used by primary isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 as coreceptors with CD4. Journal of Virology 72, 4065-4071.
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Mankowski, J. L., Spelman, J. P., Ressetar, H. G., Strandberg, J. D., Laterra, J., Carter, D. L., Clements, J. E. & Zink, M. C. ( 1994; ). Neurovirulent simian immunodeficiency virus replicates productively in endothelial cells of the central nervous system in vivo and in vitro. Journal of Virology 68, 8202-8208.
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Marlink, R., Kanki, P., Thior, I., Travers, K., Eisen, G., Siby, T., Traore, I., Hsieh, C. C., Dia, M. C., Gueye, E. H., Hellinger, J., Gueye-Ndiaye, A., Sankale, J.-L., Ndoye, I., Mboup, S. & Essex, M. ( 1994; ). Reduced rate of disease development after HIV-2 infection as compared to HIV-1. Science 265, 1587-1590.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Masur, H., Michelis, M. A., Greene, J. B., Onorato, I., Stouwe, R. A., Holzman, R. S., Wormser, G., Brettman, L., Lange, M., Murray, H. W. & Cunningham-Rundles, S. ( 1981; ). An outbreak of community-acquired Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: initial manifestation of cellular immune dysfunction. New England Journal of Medicine 305, 1431-1438.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Modrow, S., Hahn, B. H., Shaw, G. M., Gallo, R. C., Wong-Staal, F. & Wolf, H. ( 1987; ). Computer-assisted analysis of envelope protein sequences of seven human immunodeficiency virus isolates: prediction of antigenic epitopes in conserved and variable regions. Journal of Virology 61, 570-578.
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Moore, J. P. ( 1990; ). Simple methods for monitoring HIV-1 and HIV-2 gp120 binding to soluble CD4 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: HIV-2 has a 25-fold lower affinity than HIV-1 for soluble CD4. AIDS 4, 297-305.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Morner, A., Bjorndal, A., Albert, J., Kewalramani, V. N., Littman, D. R., Inoue, R., Thorstensson, R., Fenyo, E. M. & Bjorling, E. ( 1999; ). Primary human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) isolates, like HIV-1 isolates, frequently use CCR5 but show promiscuity in coreceptor usage. Journal of Virology 73, 2343-2349.
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Moses, A. V., Bloom, F. E., Pauza, C. D. & Nelson, J. A. ( 1993; ). Human immunodeficiency virus infection of human brain capillary endothelial cells occurs via a CD4/galactosylceramide-independent mechanism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 90, 10474-10478.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Norrgren, H., Marquina, S., Leitner, T., Aaby, P., Melbye, M., Poulsen, A. G., Larsen, O., Dias, F., Escanilla, D., Andersson, S., Albert, J. & Naucler, A. ( 1997; ). HIV-2 genetic variation and DNA load in asymptomatic carriers and AIDS cases in Guinea-Bissau. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology 16, 31-38.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Norrgren, H., Andersson, S., Biague, A. J., da Silva, Z. J., Dias, F., Naucler, A. & Biberfeld, G. ( 1999; ). Trends and interaction of HIV-1 and HIV-2 in Guinea-Bissau, west Africa: no protection of HIV-2 against HIV-1 infection. AIDS 13, 701-707.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  105. O’Donovan, D., Ariyoshi, K., Milligan, P., Ota, M., Yamuah, L., Sarge-Njie, R. & Whittle, H. ( 2000; ). Maternal plasma viral RNA levels determine marked differences in mother-to-child transmission rates of HIV-1 and HIV-2 in The Gambia. AIDS 14, 441-448.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Owen, S. M., Ellenberger, D., Rayfield, M., Wiktor, S., Michel, P., Grieco, M. H., Gao, F., Hahn, B. H. & Lal, R. B. ( 1998; ). Genetically divergent strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 use multiple coreceptors for viral entry. Journal of Virology 72, 5425-5432.
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Park, I. W. & Sodroski, J. ( 1995; ). Functional analysis of the vpx, vpr, and nef genes of simian immunodeficiency virus. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology 8, 335-344.
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Pepin, J., Morgan, G., Dunn, D., Gevao, S., Mendy, M., Gaye, I., Scollen, N., Tedder, R. & Whittle, H. ( 1991; ). HIV-2-induced immunosuppression among asymptomatic West African prostitutes: evidence that HIV-2 is pathogenic, but less so than HIV-1. AIDS 5, 1165-1172.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Picard, L., Simmons, G., Power, C. A., Meyer, A., Weiss, R. A. & Clapham, P. R. ( 1997; ). Multiple extracellular domains of CCR-5 contribute to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry and fusion. Journal of Virology 71, 5003-5011.
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Piguet, V. & Trono, D. ( 1999; ). The Nef protein of primate lentiviruses. Reviews in Medical Virology 9, 111-120.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Pleskoff, O., Sol, N., Labrosse, B. & Alizon, M. ( 1997a; ). Human immunodeficiency virus strains differ in their ability to infect CD4+ cells expressing the rat homolog of CXCR-4 (fusin). Journal of Virology 71, 3259-3262.
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Pleskoff, O., Treboute, C., Brelot, A., Heveker, N., Seman, M. & Alizon, M. ( 1997b; ). Identification of a chemokine receptor encoded by human cytomegalovirus as a cofactor for HIV-1 entry. Science 276, 1874-1878.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Popper, S. J., Sarr, A. D., Gueye-Ndiaye, A., Mboup, S., Essex, M. E. & Kanki, P. J. ( 2000; ). Low plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 2 virus load is independent of provirus load: low virus production in vivo. Journal of Virology 74, 1554-1557.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Potempa, S., Picard, L., Reeves, J. D., Wilkinson, D., Weiss, R. A. & Talbot, S. J. ( 1997; ). CD4-independent infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 2 strain ROD/B: the role of the N-terminal domain of CXCR-4 in fusion and entry. Journal of Virology 71, 4419-4424.
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Poulsen, A. G., Kvinesdal, B., Aaby, P., Molbak, K., Frederiksen, K., Dias, F. & Lauritzen, E. ( 1989; ). Prevalence of and mortality from human immunodeficiency virus type 2 in Bissau, West Africa. Lancet 1, 827-831.
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Poulsen, A. G., Aaby, P., Larsen, O., Jensen, H., Naucler, A., Lisse, I. M., Christiansen, C. B., Dias, F. & Melbye, M. ( 1997; ). 9-year HIV-2-associated mortality in an urban community in Bissau, west Africa. Lancet 349, 911-914.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Rappaport, J., Arya, S. K., Richardson, M. W., Baier-Bitterlich, G. & Klotman, P. E. ( 1995; ). Inhibition of HIV-1 expression by HIV-2. Journal of Molecular Medicine 73, 583-589.
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Reeves, J. D. & Schulz, T. F. ( 1997; ). The CD4-independent tropism of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 involves several regions of the envelope protein and correlates with a reduced activation threshold for envelope-mediated fusion. Journal of Virology 71, 1453-1465.
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Reeves, J. D., McKnight, A., Potempa, S., Simmons, G., Gray, P. W., Power, C. A., Wells, T., Weiss, R. A. & Talbot, S. J. ( 1997; ). CD4-independent infection by HIV-2 (ROD/B): use of the 7-transmembrane receptors CXCR-4, CCR-3, and V28 for entry. Virology 231, 130-134.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Reeves, J. D., Heveker, N., Brelot, A., Alizon, M., Clapham, P. R. & Picard, L. ( 1998; ). The second extracellular loop of CXCR4 is involved in CD4-independent entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 2. Journal of General Virology 79, 1793-1799.
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Reeves, J. D., Hibbitts, S., Simmons, G., McKnight, A., Azevedo-Pereira, J. M., Moniz-Pereira, J. & Clapham, P. R. ( 1999; ). Primary human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) isolates infect CD4-negative cells via CCR5 and CXCR4: comparison with HIV-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus and relevance to cell tropism in vivo. Journal of Virology 73, 7795-7804.
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Reeves, J. D., Simmons, G., Dejucq, N., Hibbitts, S., McKnight, A., Azevedo-Pereira, J., Moniz-Pereira, J. & Clapham, P. (2000). Comparison of CD4-independent infection by HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV strains, and relevance of receptors other than CCR5 and CXCR4 for infection of primary cell types. In XIII International AIDS conference, pp. MoPeA2021. Durban, South Africa.
  123. Remy, G. ( 1998; ). HIV-2 infection throughout the world. A geographical perspective. Santé 8, 440-446.
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Rey-Cuille, M. A., Berthier, J. L., Bomsel-Demontoy, M. C., Chaduc, Y., Montagnier, L., Hovanessian, A. G. & Chakrabarti, L. A. ( 1998; ). Simian immunodeficiency virus replicates to high levels in sooty mangabeys without inducing disease. Journal of Virology 72, 3872-3886.
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Rizzuto, C. D., Wyatt, R., Hernandez-Ramos, N., Sun, Y., Kwong, P. D., Hendrickson, W. A. & Sodroski, J. ( 1998; ). A conserved HIV gp120 glycoprotein structure involved in chemokine receptor binding. Science 280, 1949-1953.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Robert-Guroff, M., Aldrich, K., Muldoon, R., Stern, T. L., Bansal, G. P., Matthews, T. J., Markham, P. D., Gallo, R. C. & Franchini, G. ( 1992; ). Cross-neutralization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2 and simian immunodeficiency virus isolates. Journal of Virology 66, 3602-3608.
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Rodes, B., Holguin, A., Soriano, V., Dourana, M., Mansinho, K., Antunes, F. & Gonzalez-Lahoz, J. ( 2000; ). Emergence of drug resistance mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 2-infected subjects undergoing antiretroviral therapy. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 38, 1370-1374.
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Rowland-Jones, S., Sutton, J., Ariyoshi, K., Dong, T., Gotch, F., McAdam, S., Whitby, D., Sabally, S., Gallimore, A., Corrah, T., Takiguchi, M., Schultz, T., McMichael, A. & Whittle, H. ( 1995; ). HIV-specific cytotoxic T-cells in HIV-exposed but uninfected Gambian women. Nature Medicine 1, 59-64.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Rubsamen-Waigmann, H., Briesen, H. V., Maniar, J. K., Rao, P. K., Scholz, C. & Pfutzner, A. ( 1991; ). Spread of HIV-2 in India. Lancet 337, 550-551.
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Rucker, J., Edinger, A. L., Sharron, M., Samson, M., Lee, B., Berson, J. F., Yi, Y., Margulies, B., Collman, R. G., Doranz, B. J., Parmentier, M. & Doms, R. W. ( 1997; ). Utilization of chemokine receptors, orphan receptors, and herpesvirus-encoded receptors by diverse human and simian immunodeficiency viruses. Journal of Virology 71, 8999-9007.
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Safai, B. (1997). Kaposi’s sarcoma and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In AIDS Etiology, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention, 4 edn, pp. 295–317. Edited by V. T. Devita, S. Hellman & S. A. Rosenberg. Philadelphia & New York: Lippincott–Raven.
  132. Saito, Y., Sharer, L. R., Epstein, L. G., Michaels, J., Mintz, M., Louder, M., Golding, K., Cvetkovich, T. A. & Blumberg, B. M. ( 1994; ). Overexpression of nef as a marker for restricted HIV-1 infection of astrocytes in postmortem pediatric central nervous tissues. Neurology 44, 474-481.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Samson, M., Libert, F., Doranz, B. J., Rucker, J., Liesnard, C., Farber, C. M., Saragosti, S., Lapoumeroulie, C., Cognaux, J., Forceille, C., Muyldermans, G., Verhofstede, C., Burtonboy, G., Georges, M., Imai, T., Rana, S., Yi, Y., Smyth, R. J., Collman, R. G., Doms, R. W., Vassart, G. & Parmentier, M. ( 1996; ). Resistance to HIV-1 infection in caucasian individuals bearing mutant alleles of the CCR-5 chemokine receptor gene. Nature 382, 722-725.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Sankale, J. L., De La Tour, R. S., Marlink, R. G., Scheib, R., Mboup, S., Essex, M. E. & Kanki, P. J. ( 1996; ). Distinct quasi-species in the blood and the brain of an HIV-2-infected individual. Virology 226, 418-423.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Schenten, D., Marcon, L., Karlsson, G. B., Parolin, C., Kodama, T., Gerard, N. & Sodroski, J. ( 1999; ). Effects of soluble CD4 on simian immunodeficiency virus infection of CD4-positive and CD4-negative cells. Journal of Virology 73, 5373-5380.
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Schim van der Loeff, M. & Aaby, P. ( 1999; ). Towards a better understanding of the epidemiology of HIV-2. AIDS 13, S69-S84.
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Schulz, T. F., Whitby, D., Hoad, J. G., Corrah, T., Whittle, H. & Weiss, R. A. ( 1990; ). Biological and molecular variability of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 isolates from The Gambia. Journal of Virology 64, 5177-5182.
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Sharp, P. M., Robertson, D. L. & Hahn, B. H. ( 1995; ). Cross-species transmission and recombination of AIDS viruses. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B 349, 41-47.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  139. Sharron, M., Pohlmann, S., Price, K., Lolis, E., Tsang, M., Kirchhoff, F., Doms, R. W. & Lee, B. ( 2000; ). Expression and coreceptor activity of STRL33/Bonzo on primary peripheral blood lymphocytes. Blood 96, 41-49.
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Shimizu, N., Soda, Y., Kanbe, K., Liu, H. Y., Jinno, A., Kitamura, T. & Hoshino, H. ( 1999; ). An orphan G protein-coupled receptor, GPR1, acts as a coreceptor to allow replication of human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 in brain-derived cells. Journal of Virology 73, 5231-5239.
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Shimizu, N., Soda, Y., Kanbe, K., Liu, H. Y., Mukai, R., Kitamura, T. & Hoshino, H. ( 2000; ). A putative G protein-coupled receptor, RDC1, is a novel coreceptor for human and simian immunodeficiency viruses. Journal of Virology 74, 619-626.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Simmons, G., Reeves, J. D., McKnight, A., Dejucq, N., Hibbitts, S., Power, C. A., Aarons, E., Schols, D., De Clercq, E., Proudfoot, A. E. & Clapham, P. R. ( 1998; ). CXCR4 as a functional coreceptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of primary macrophages. Journal of Virology 72, 8453-8457.
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Simmons, G., Reeves, J. D., Hibbitts, S., Stine, J. T., Gray, P. W., Proudfoot, A. E. & Clapham, P. R. ( 2000; ). Co-receptor use by HIV and inhibition of HIV infection by chemokine receptor ligands. Immunological Reviews 177, 112-126.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  144. Simon, F., Matheron, S., Tamalet, C., Loussert-Ajaka, I., Bartczak, S., Pepin, J. M., Dhiver, C., Gamba, E., Elbim, C., Gastaut, J. A., Saimot, A. G. & Brun-Vezinet, F. ( 1993; ). Cellular and plasma virus load in patients infected with HIV-2. AIDS 7, 1411-1417.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  145. Smith, N. A., Shaw, T., Berry, N., Vella, C., Okorafor, L., Taylor, D., Ainsworth, J., Choudhury, A., Daniels, R. S., El-Gadi, S., Fakoya, A., Moyle, G., Oxford, J., Tedder, R., O’Shea, S., de Ruiter, A. & Breuer, J. ( 2001; ). Antiretroviral therapy for HIV-2 infected patients. Journal of Infection 42, 126-133.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  146. Sol, N., Ferchal, F., Braun, J., Pleskoff, O., Treboute, C., Ansart, I. & Alizon, M. ( 1997; ). Usage of the coreceptors CCR-5, CCR-3, and CXCR-4 by primary and cell line-adapted human immunodeficiency virus type 2. Journal of Virology 71, 8237-8244.
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Soriano, V., Gomes, P., Heneine, W., Holguin, A., Doruana, M., Antunes, R., Mansinho, K., Switzer, W. M., Araujo, C., Shanmugam, V., Lourenco, H., Gonzalez-Lahoz, J. & Antunes, F. ( 2000; ). Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) in Portugal: clinical spectrum, circulating subtypes, virus isolation, and plasma viral load. Journal of Medical Virology 61, 111-116.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  148. Sousa, A. E., Chaves, A. F., Loureiro, A. & Victorino, R. M. ( 2001; ). Comparison of the frequency of interleukin (IL)-2-, interferon- γ-, and IL-4-producing T cells in two diseases, human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2, with distinct clinical outcomes. Journal of Infectious Diseases 184, 552-559.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  149. Speck, R. F., Wehrly, K., Platt, E. J., Atchison, R. E., Charo, I. F., Kabat, D., Chesebro, B. & Goldsmith, M. A. ( 1997; ). Selective employment of chemokine receptors as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 coreceptors determined by individual amino acids within the envelope V3 loop. Journal of Virology 71, 7136-7139.
    [Google Scholar]
  150. Starcich, B. R., Hahn, B. H., Shaw, G. M., McNeely, P. D., Modrow, S., Wolf, H., Parks, E. S., Parks, W. P., Josephs, S. F., Gallo, R. C. & Wong-Staal, F. ( 1986; ). Identification and characterization of conserved and variable regions in the envelope gene of HTLV-III/LAV, the retrovirus of AIDS. Cell 45, 637-648.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  151. Stoler, M. H., Eskin, T. A., Benn, S., Angerer, R. C. & Angerer, L. M. ( 1986; ). Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III infection of the central nervous system. A preliminary in situ analysis. The Journal of the American Medical Association 256, 2360-2364.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  152. Switzer, W. M., Wiktor, S., Soriano, V., Silva-Graca, A., Mansinho, K., Coulibaly, I. M., Ekpini, E., Greenberg, A. E., Folks, T. M. & Heneine, W. ( 1998; ). Evidence of Nef truncation in human immunodeficiency virus type 2 infection. Journal of Infectious Diseases 177, 65-71.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  153. Tersmette, M., de Goede, R. E., Al, B. J., Winkel, I. N., Gruters, R. A., Cuypers, H. T., Huisman, H. G. & Miedema, F. ( 1988; ). Differential syncytium-inducing capacity of human immunodeficiency virus isolates: frequent detection of syncytium-inducing isolates in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex. Journal of Virology 62, 2026-2032.
    [Google Scholar]
  154. Tornatore, C., Chandra, R., Berger, J. R. & Major, E. O. ( 1994; ). HIV-1 infection of subcortical astrocytes in the pediatric central nervous system. Neurology 44, 481-487.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  155. Travers, K., Mboup, S., Marlink, R., Gueye-Nidaye, A., Siby, T., Thior, I., Traore, I., Dieng-Sarr, A., Sankale, J. L., Mullins, C., Ndoye, I., Hsieh, C. C., Essex, M. & Kanki, P. ( 1995; ). Natural protection against HIV-1 infection provided by HIV-2. Science 268, 1612-1615.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  156. Travers, K. U., Eisen, G. E., Marlink, R. G., Essex, M. E., Hsieh, C. C., Mboup, S. & Kanki, P. J. ( 1998; ). Protection from HIV-1 infection by HIV-2. AIDS 12, 224-225.
    [Google Scholar]
  157. UNAIDS/WHO (1998). Portugal: Epidemiological fact sheet on HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases, pp. 1–12: UNAIDS/WHO.
  158. Unutmaz, D., KewalRamani, V. N. & Littman, D. R. ( 1998; ). G protein-coupled receptors in HIV and SIV entry: new perspectives on lentivirus-host interactions and on the utility of animal models. Seminars in Immunology 10, 225-236.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  159. van der Ende, M. E. (2000). Antiretroviral treatment of HIV-2-infected adults. HIV-2: from Biology to Clinical Practice. (London, UK, January 2000).
  160. van der Ende, M. E., Guillon, C., Boers, P. H., Ly, T. D., Gruters, R. A., Osterhaus, A. D. & Schutten, M. ( 2000; ). Antiviral resistance of biologic HIV-2 clones obtained from individuals on nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapy. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 25, 11-18.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  161. van’t Wout, A. B., Ran, L. J., Kuiken, C. L., Kootstra, N. A., Pals, S. T. & Schuitemaker, H. ( 1998; ). Analysis of the temporal relationship between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 quasispecies in sequential blood samples and various organs obtained at autopsy. Journal of Virology 72, 488-496.
    [Google Scholar]
  162. Ward, J. M., O’Leary, T. J., Baskin, G. B., Benveniste, R., Harris, C. A., Nara, P. L. & Rhodes, R. H. ( 1987; ). Immunohistochemical localization of human and simian immunodeficiency viral antigens in fixed tissue sections. American Journal of Pathology 127, 199-205.
    [Google Scholar]
  163. Weiss, R. A., Clapham, P. R., Weber, J. N., Whitby, D., Tedder, R. S., O’Connor, T., Chamaret, S. & Montagnier, L. ( 1988; ). HIV-2 antisera cross-neutralize HIV-1. AIDS 2, 95-100.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  164. Weissenhorn, W., Dessen, A., Harrison, S. C., Skehel, J. J. & Wiley, D. C. ( 1997; ). Atomic structure of the ectodomain from HIV-1 gp41. Nature 387, 426-430.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  165. Whittle, H., Egboga, A., Todd, J., Corrah, T., Wilkins, A., Demba, E., Morgan, G., Rolfe, M., Berry, N. & Tedder, R. ( 1992; ). Clinical and laboratory predictors of survival in Gambian patients with symptomatic HIV-1 or HIV-2 infection. AIDS 6, 685-689.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  166. Whittle, H., Morris, J., Todd, J., Corrah, T., Sabally, S., Bangali, J., Ngom, P. T., Rolfe, M. & Wilkins, A. ( 1994; ). HIV-2-infected patients survive longer than HIV-1-infected patients. AIDS 8, 1617-1620.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  167. Whittle, H. C., Ariyoshi, K. & Rowland-Jones, S. ( 1998; ). HIV-2 and T cell recognition. Current Opinion in Immunology 10, 382-387.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  168. Wiktor, S. Z., Nkengasong, J. N., Ekpini, E. R., Adjorlolo-Johnson, G. T., Ghys, P. D., Brattegaard, K., Tossou, O., Dondero, T. J., De Cock, K. M. & Greenberg, A. E. ( 1999; ). Lack of protection against HIV-1 infection among women with HIV-2 infection. AIDS 13, 695-699.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  169. Wiley, C. A., Schrier, R. D., Nelson, J. A., Lampert, P. W. & Oldstone, M. B. ( 1986; ). Cellular localization of human immunodeficiency virus infection within the brains of acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 83, 7089-7093.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  170. Wilkins, A., Ricard, D., Todd, J., Whittle, H., Dias, F. & Paulo Da Silva, A. ( 1993; ). The epidemiology of HIV infection in a rural area of Guinea-Bissau. AIDS 7, 1119-1122.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  171. Willey, R. L., Rutledge, R. A., Dias, S., Folks, T., Theodore, T., Buckler, C. E. & Martin, M. A. ( 1986; ). Identification of conserved and divergent domains within the envelope gene of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome retrovirus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 83, 5038-5042.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  172. Witvrouw, M., Pannecouque, C., Van Laethem, K., Desmyter, J., De Clercq, E. & Vandamme, A. M. ( 1999; ). Activity of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors against HIV-2 and SIV. AIDS 13, 1477-1483.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  173. Yamaguchi, J., Devare, S. G. & Brennan, C. A. ( 2000; ). Identification of a new HIV-2 subtype based on phylogenetic analysis of full-length genomic sequence. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 16, 925-930.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  174. Yang, Z. N., Mueser, T. C., Kaufman, J., Stahl, S. J., Wingfield, P. T. & Hyde, C. C. ( 1999; ). The crystal structure of the SIV gp41 ectodomain at 1·47 Å resolution. Journal of Structural Biology 126, 131-144.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  175. Zagury, J. F., Franchini, G., Reitz, M., Collalti, E., Starcich, B., Hall, L., Fargnoli, K., Jagodzinski, L., Guo, H. G., Laure, F., Arya, S. K., Josephs, S., Zagury, D., Wongstaal, F. & Gallo, R. C. ( 1988; ). Genetic variability between isolates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2 is comparable to the variability among HIV type 1. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 85, 5941-5945.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  176. Zhang, Y., Lou, B., Lal, R. B., Gettie, A., Marx, P. A. & Moore, J. P. ( 2000; ). Use of inhibitors to evaluate coreceptor usage by simian and simian/human immunodeficiency viruses and human immunodeficiency virus type 2 in primary cells. Journal of Virology 74, 6893-6910.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-83-6-1253
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-83-6-1253
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error