1887

Abstract

A male Asian elephant () died at the Berlin zoological gardens in August 1998 of systemic infection with the novel endotheliotropic elephant herpesvirus (ElHV-1). This virus causes a fatal haemorrhagic disease in Asian elephants, the so-called endothelial inclusion body disease, as reported from North American zoological gardens. In the present work, ElHV-1 was visualized ultrastructurally in affected organ material. Furthermore, a gene block comprising the complete glycoprotein B (gB) and DNA polymerase (DPOL) genes as well as two partial genes was amplified by PCR-based genome walking and sequenced. The gene content and arrangement were similar to those of members of the . However, phylogenetic analysis with gB and DPOL consistently revealed a very distant relationship to the betaherpesviruses. Therefore, ElHV-1 may be a member of a new genus or even a new herpesvirus subfamily. The sequence information generated was used to set up a nested-PCR assay for diagnosis of suspected cases of endothelial inclusion body disease. Furthermore, it will aid in the development of antibody-based detection methods and of vaccination strategies against this fatal herpesvirus infection in the endangered Asian elephant.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-82-3-475
2001-03-01
2019-12-06
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/82/3/0820475a.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-82-3-475&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Albrecht, J. C., Nicholas, J., Biller, D., Cameron, K. R., Biesinger, B., Newman, C., Wittmann, S., Craxton, M. A., Coleman, H., Fleckenstein, B. & Honess, R. W. ( 1992; ). Primary structure of the herpesvirus saimiri genome. Journal of Virology 66, 5047-5058.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Blanco, L., Bernad, A., Blasco, M. A. & Salas, M. ( 1991; ). A general structure for DNA-dependent DNA polymerases. Gene 100, 27-38.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Burkhardt, S., Hentschke, J., Weiler, H., Ehlers, B., Ochs, A., Walter, J., Wittstatt, U. & G ltenboth, R. ( 1999; ). Elephant herpesvirus – a problem for breeding and housing of elephants. Berliner und Münchner Tierärztliche Wochenschrift 112, 174–179 (in German).
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Ehlers, B., Borchers, K., Grund, C., Frölich, K., Ludwig, H. & Buhk, H.-J. ( 1999a; ). Detection of new DNA polymerase genes of known and potentially novel herpesviruses by PCR with degenerate and deoxyinosine-substituted primers. Virus Genes 18, 211-220.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Ehlers, B., Ulrich, S. & Goltz, M. ( 1999b; ). Detection of two novel porcine herpesviruses with high similarity to gammaherpesviruses. Journal of General Virology 80, 971-978.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Ensser, A., Pflanz, R. & Fleckenstein, B. ( 1997; ). Primary structure of the alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 genome. Journal of Virology 71, 6517-6525.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Felsenstein, J. ( 1985; ). Confidence limits on phylogenies – an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39, 783-791.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Felsenstein, J. (1993). PHYLIP (phylogeny inference package) version 3.5c. Distributed by the author. Department of Genetics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
  9. Honess, R. W., Gompels, U. A., Barrell, B. G., Craxton, M., Cameron, K. R., Staden, R., Chang, Y.-N. & Hayward, G. S. ( 1989; ). Deviations from expected frequencies of CpG dinucleotides in herpesvirus DNAs may be diagnostic of differences in the states of their latent genomes. Journal of General Virology 70, 837-855.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Knopf, C. W. ( 1998; ). Evolution of viral DNA-dependent DNA polymerases. Virus Genes 16, 47-58.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. McGeoch, D. J., Cook, S., Dolan, A., Jamieson, F. E. & Telford, E. A. R. ( 1995; ). Molecular phylogeny and evolutionary timescale for the family of mammalian herpesviruses. Journal of Molecular Biology 247, 443-458.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Murphy, F. A., Fauquet, C. M., Bishop, D. H. L., Ghabrial, S. A., Jarvis, A. W., Martelli, G. P., Mayo, M. A. & Summers, M. D. (editors) (1995). Virus Taxonomy. Sixth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Vienna & New York: Springer-Verlag.
  13. Ossent, P., Guscetti, F., Metzler, A. E., Lang, E. M., Rübel, A. & Hauser, B. ( 1990; ). Acute and fatal herpesvirus infection in a young Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Veterinary Pathology 27, 131-133.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Richman, L. K., Montali, R. J., Cambre, R. C. & Lehnhardt, J. ( 1996; ). Endothelial inclusion body disease: a newly recognized fatal herpes-like infection in Asian elephants. Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians 155, 483-486.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Richman, L. K., Montali, R. J., Garber, R. L., Kennedy, M. A., Lehnhardt, J., Hildebrandt, T., Schmitt, D., Hardy, D., Alcendor, D. J. & Hayward, G. S. ( 1999; ). Novel endotheliotropic herpesviruses fatal for Asian and African elephants. Science 283, 1171-1176.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Schmitt, D. L. & Hardy, D. A. ( 1998; ). Use of famciclovir for the treatment of herpesvirus in an Asian elephant. Journal of Elephant Managers Association 9, 103.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Spaete, R. R., Saxena, A., Scott, P. I., Song, G. J., Probert, W. S., Britt, W. J., Gibson, W., Rasmussen, L. & Pachl, C. ( 1990; ). Sequence requirements for proteolytic processing of glycoprotein B of human cytomegalovirus strain Towne. Journal of Virology 64, 2922-2931.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Stanberry, L. R. ( 1986; ). Herpesvirus latency and recurrence. Progress in Medical Virology 33, 61-77.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Stevens, J. G. ( 1989; ). Human herpesviruses: a consideration of the latent state. Microbiological Reviews 53, 318-332.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Ulrich, S., Goltz, M. & Ehlers, B. ( 1999; ). Characterization of the DNA polymerase loci of the novel porcine lymphotropic herpesviruses 1 and 2 in domestic and feral pigs. Journal of General Virology 80, 3199-3205.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Virgin, H. W.IV, Latreille, P., Wamsley, P., Hallsworth, K., Weck, K. E., Dal Canto, A. J. & Speck, S. H. ( 1997; ). Complete sequence and genomic analysis of murine gammaherpesvirus 68. Journal of Virology 71, 5894-5904.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Wellington, J. E., Gooley, A. A., Love, D. N. & Whalley, J. M. ( 1996; ). N-terminal sequence analysis of equine herpesvirus 1 glycoproteins D and B and evidence for internal cleavage of the gene 71 product. Journal of General Virology 77, 75-82.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-82-3-475
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-82-3-475
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error