1887

Abstract

The specific-pathogen-free (SPF) flocks of chickens maintained by the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at Cornell University became infected, inadvertently, with chicken anaemia virus (CAV), as demonstrated by seroconversion. Chickens from five flocks representing three different strains were examined for the presence of CAV using nested PCR. Virus was detected in ovaries, infundibula, vas deferentia, testes and spleens. Ovaries were positive in 38 to 72% of the hens in four flocks with 13 to 56 birds examined per flock. Interestingly, the ovaries were often the only positive tissues, while a few hens had only positive spleens. In roosters, the vas deferens was positive in 30 to 79% of the birds with 5 to 19 birds examined per flock; the vas deferens was the only positive tissue in 20 to 37%. Individual cells in the theca externa and rare epithelial cells in the infundibular epithelium were positive for CAV by PCR. Positive cells were not detected in testes or vas deferentia. The SH-1 strain of CAV was isolated from these tissues and partially sequenced. Only minor sequence differences were found compared to CIA-1 and Cux-1. Embryos from matings between persistently infected dams and sire had CAV-positive cells in mesenchyme near the developing vertebral column. The data show that CAV persists in the reproductive tissues far longer than previously thought, and that it can be vertically transmitted from persistently infected birds.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-81-8-2067
2000-08-01
2019-10-15
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/81/8/0812067a.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-81-8-2067&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Adair, B. M., McNeilly, F., McConnell, C. D. & McNulty, M. S. ( 1993; ). Characterization of surface markers present on cells infected by chicken anemia virus in experimentally infected chickens. Avian Diseases 37, 943-950.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bassami, M. R., Berryman, D., Wilcox, G. E. & Raidal, S. R. ( 1998; ). Psittacine beak and feather disease virus nucleotide sequence analysis and its relationship to porcine circovirus, plant circoviruses, and chicken anemia virus. Virology 249, 453-459.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Calnek, B. W., Lucio-Martinez, B., Cardona, C., Harris, R. W., Schat, K. A. & Buscaglia, C. ( 2000; ). Comparative susceptibility of Marek’s disease cell lines to chicken infectious anemia virus. Avian Diseases 44, 114-124.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Cardona, C. J., Lucio, B., O’Connell, P., Jagne, J. & Schat, K. A. (2000). Humoral immune responses to chicken infectious anemia virus in three strains of chickens in a closed flock. Avian Diseases 44 (in press).
  5. Chandratilleke, D., O’Connell, P. & Schat, K. A. ( 1991; ). Characterization of proteins of chicken infectious anemia virus with monoclonal antibodies. Avian Diseases 35, 854-862.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Chettle, N. J., Eddy, R. K., Wyeth, P. J. & Lister, S. A. ( 1989; ). An outbreak of disease due to chicken anemia agent in broiler chickens in England. Veterinary Record 124, 211-215.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Engström, B. E. & Luthman, M. ( 1984; ). Blue wing disease of chickens: experimental infection with a Swedish isolate of chicken anaemia agent and an avian reovirus. Avian Pathology 17, 23-32.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Etches, R. J. (1996). The male. In Reproduction in Poultry, pp. 208–233. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
  9. Fares, F., Habib, M., Verniol, C., Drouet, E. & Niveleau, A. ( 1998; ). In situ amplification of the Epstein–Barr virus genome in cell suspensions. Journal of Virological Methods 71, 211-218.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Goryo, M., Sugimura, H., Matsumoto, S., Umemura, T. & Itakura, C. ( 1985; ). Isolation of an agent inducing chicken anaemia. Avian Pathology 14, 483-496.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Goryo, M., Shibata, Y., Suwa, T., Umemura, T. & Itakura, C. ( 1987; ). Outbreak of anemia associated with chicken anemia agent in young chicks. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Science 49, 867-873.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Goryo, M., Suwa, T., Umemura, T., Itakura, C. & Yamashiro, S. ( 1989; ). Histopathology of chicks inoculated with chicken anaemia agent (MSB1-TK5803 strain). Avian Pathology 18, 73-89.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Hodges, R. D. (1974). The Histology of the Fowl, p. 648, New York: Academic Press.
  14. Hoop, R. K. ( 1992; ). Persistence and vertical transmission of chicken anaemia agent in experimentally infected laying hens. Avian Pathology 21, 493-501.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Hoop, R. K. ( 1993; ). Transmission of chicken anaemia virus with semen. Veterinary Record 133, 551-552.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Hoop, R. K. & Reece, R. L. ( 1991; ). The use of immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase staining in studying the pathogenesis of chicken anemia agent in experimentally infected chickens. Avian Pathology 20, 349-356.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Hoop, R. K., Guscetti, F. & Keller, B. ( 1992; ). An outbreak of infectious chicken anemia in fattening chickens in Switzerland. Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde 134, 485-489.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hu, L.-B., Lucio, B. & Schat, K. A. ( 1993a; ). Abrogation of age-related resistance to chicken infectious anemia by embryonal bursectomy. Avian Diseases 37, 157-169.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hu, L.-B, Lucio, B. & Schat, K. A. ( 1993b; ). Depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte subpopulations by CIA-1, a chicken infectious anemia virus. Avian Diseases 37, 492-500.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Lucio, B., Schat, K. A. & Shivaprasad, H. L. ( 1990; ). Identification of the chicken anemia agent, reproduction of the disease, and serological survey in the United States. Avian Diseases 34, 146-153.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. McNulty, M. S. ( 1991; ). Chicken anemia agent: a review. Avian Pathology 20, 187-203.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Miyata, H., Tsunoda, H., Kazi, A., Yamada, A., Khan, M. A., Murakami, J., Kamahora, T., Shiraki, K. & Hino, S. ( 1999; ). Identification of a novel GC-rich 113-nucleotide region to complete the circular, single-stranded DNA genome of TT virus, the first human circovirus. Journal of Virology 73, 3582-3586.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Moore, D. D. (1988). Preparation and analysis of DNA. In Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, vol. 1, Sections 2.1.1–2.1.10. Edited by F. M. Ausubel, R. Brent, R. E. Kingston, D. D. Moore, J. G. Seidman, J. A. Smith & K. Struhl. New York: Greene Publishing Associates/Wiley Interscience.
  24. Niagro, F. D., Forsthoefel, A. N., Lawther, R. P., Kamalanathan, L., Ritchie, B. W., Latimer, K. S. & Lukert, P. D. ( 1998; ). Beak and feather disease virus and porcine circovirus genomes: intermediates between the geminiviruses and plant circoviruses. Archives of Virology 143, 1723-1744.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Noteborn, M. H. M. & Koch, G. ( 1995; ). Chicken anemia virus infection: molecular basis of pathogenicity. Avian Pathology 24, 11-31.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Nuovo, G. J., Lidonnici, K., MacConnell, P. & Lane, B. ( 1993; ). Intracellular localization of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified hepatitis C cDNA. American Journal of Surgery and Pathology 17, 683-690.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Plummer, P. J., Alefantis, T., Kaplan, S., O’Connell, P., Shawky, S. & Schat, K. A. ( 1998; ). Detection of duck enteritis virus by polymerase chain reaction. Avian Diseases 42, 554-564.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Pope, C. R. ( 1991; ). Chicken anemia agent. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 30, 51-65.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Renshaw, R. W., Soiné, C., Weinkle, T., O’Connell, P. H., Ohashi, K., Watson, S., Lucio, B., Harrington, S. & Schat, K. A. ( 1996; ). A hypervariable region in VP1 of chicken infectious anemia virus mediates rate of spread and cell tropism in tissue culture. Journal of Virology 70, 8872-8878.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Ritchie, B. W., Niagro, F. D., Lukert, P. D., Steffens, W. L. & Latimer, K. S. ( 1989; ). Characterization of a new virus from cockatoos with psittacine beak and feather disease. Virology 171, 83-88.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E. F. & Maniatis, T. (1989). Analysis and cloning of eukaryotic genomic DNA. In Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, vol. 2, 2nd edn, pp. 9.1–9.62. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.
  32. Smyth, J. A., Moffett, D. A., McNulty, M. S., Todd, D. & Mackie, D. P. ( 1993; ). A sequential histopathologic and immunocytochemical study of chicken anemia virus infection at one day of age. Avian Diseases 37, 324-338.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Soiné, C., Watson, S. K., Rybicki, E., Lucio, B., Nordgren, R. M., Parrish, C. R. & Schat, K. A. ( 1993; ). Determination of the detection limit of the polymerase chain reaction for chicken infectious anemia virus. Avian Diseases 37, 467-476.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Studdert, M. J. ( 1993; ). Circoviridae: new viruses of pigs, parrots and chickens. Australian Veterinary Journal 70, 121-122.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Taniguchi, T., Yuasa, N., Maeda, M. & Horiuchi, T. ( 1983; ). Chronological observations on hemato-pathological changes in chicks inoculated with chicken anemia agent. National Institute of Animal Health Quarterly (Japan) 23, 1-12.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Tischer, I., Gelderblom, H., Vettermann, W. & Koch, M. A. ( 1982; ). A very small porcine virus with circular single-stranded DNA. Nature 295, 64-66.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Vielitz, E. & Landgraf, H. ( 1988; ). Anaemia-dermatitis of broilers: field observations on its occurrence, transmission and prevention. Avian Pathology 17, 113-120.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Von Bülow, V. & Witt, M. ( 1986; ). Vermehrung des Erregers der aviären infektiösen Anämie (CAA) in embryonierten Hühnereieren. Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Series B 33, 664-669.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Von Bülow, V. & Schat, K. A. ( 1997; ). Infectious anemia. In Diseases of Poultry, pp. 739-756. Edited by B. W. Calnek, H. J. Barnes, C. W. Beard, L. R. McDougald & Y. M. Saif. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press.
  40. Yuasa, N. & Yoshida, I. ( 1983; ). Experimental egg transmission of chicken anemia agent. National Institute of Animal Health Quarterly (Japan) 23, 99-100.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Yuasa, N., Taniguchi, T. & Yoshida, I. ( 1979; ). Isolation and characteristics of an agent inducing anemia in chicks. Avian Diseases 23, 366-385.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Yuasa, N., Taniguchi, T., Imada, T. & Hihara, H. ( 1983; ). Distribution of chicken anemia agent (CAA) and detection of neutralizing antibody in chicks experimentally inoculated with CAA. National Institute of Animal Health Quarterly (Japan) 23, 78-81.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-81-8-2067
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-81-8-2067
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error