1887
Preview this article:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Interferons: cell signalling, immune modulation, antiviral response and virus countermeasures, Page 1 of 1

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/jgv/81/10/0812341a-1.gif

There is no abstract available for this article.
Use the preview function to the left.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-81-10-2341
2000-10-01
2020-04-06
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/81/10/0812341a.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-81-10-2341&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Abraham N., Stojdl D. F., Duncan P. I., Methot N., Ishii T., Dube M., Vanderhyden B. C., Atkins H. L., Gray D. A., McBurney M. W., Koromilas A. E., Brown E. G., Sonenberg N., Bell J. C.. 1999; Characterization of transgenic mice with targeted disruption of the catalytic domain of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR. Journal of Biological Chemistry274:5953–5962
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Adams D. O., Hamilton T. A.. 1984; The cell biology of macrophage activation. Annual Review of Immunology2:283–318
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Alcami A., Smith G. L.. 1995; Vaccinia, cowpox, and camelpox viruses encode soluble gamma interferon receptors with novel broad species specificity. Journal of Virology69:4633–4639
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Arena A., Liberto M. C., Iannello D., Capozza A. B., Foca A.. 1999; Altered cytokine production after human herpes virus type 6 infection. New Microbiologica22:293–300
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Arnheiter H., Frese M., Kamadur R., Meier E., Haller O.. 1995; Mx transgenic mice – animal models of health. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology206:119–147
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Au W. C., Moore P. A., LaFleur D. W., Tombal B., Pitha P. M.. 1998; Characterization of the interferon regulatory factor-7 and its potential role in the transcription activation of interferon A genes. Journal of Biological Chemistry273:29210–29217
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Aune T. M., Penix L. A., Rincon M. R., Flavell R. A.. 1997; Differential transcription directed by discrete gamma interferon promoter elements in naive and memory (effector) CD4 T cells and CD8 T cells. Molecular and Cellular Biology17:199–208
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bach E. A., Tanner J. W., Marsters S., Ashkenazi A., Aguet M., Shaw A. S., Schreiber R. D.. 1996; Ligand-induced assembly and activation of the gamma interferon receptor in intact cells. Molecular and Cellular Biology16:3214–3221
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bach E. A., Aguet M., Schreiber R. D.. 1997; The IFN gamma receptor: a paradigm for cytokine receptor signaling. Annual Review of Immunology15:563–591
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Balachandran S., Kim C. N., Yeh W. C., Mak T. W., Bhalla K., Barber G. N.. 1998; Activation of the dsRNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR, induces apoptosis through FADD-mediated death signaling. EMBO Journal17:6888–6902
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Balachandran S., Roberts P. C., Kipperman T., Bhalla K. N., Compans R. W., Archer D. R., Barber G. N.. 2000; Alpha/beta interferons potentiate virus-induced apoptosis through activation of the FADD/caspase-8 death signaling pathway. Journal of Virology74:1513–1523
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Baldwin A. S. Jr. 1996; The NF-kappa B and I kappa B proteins: new discoveries and insights. Annual Review of Immunology14:649–683
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Barnard P., McMillan N. A.. 1999; The human papillomavirus E7 oncoprotein abrogates signaling mediated by interferon-α. Virology259:305–313
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Bass B. L., Weintraub H., Cattaneo R., Billeter M. A.. 1989; Biased hypermutation of viral RNA genomes could be due to unwinding/modification of double-stranded RNA. Cell56:331–335
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Bejarano M. T., Masucci M. G.. 1998; Interleukin-10 abrogates the inhibition of Epstein–Barr virus-induced B-cell transformation by memory T-cell responses. Blood92:4256–4262
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Bergeron J., Mabrouk T., Garzon S., Lemay G.. 1998; Characterization of the thermosensitive ts453 reovirus mutant: increased dsRNA binding of sigma 3 protein correlates with interferon resistance. Virology246:199–210
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Bhat R. A., Thimmappaya B.. 1985; Construction and analysis of additional adenovirus substitution mutants confirm the complementation of VAI RNA function by two small RNAs encoded by Epstein–Barr virus. Journal of Virology56:750–756
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Bhattacharya S., Eckner R., Grossman S., Oldread E., Arany Z., D’Andrea A., Livingston D. M.. 1996; Cooperation of Stat2 and p300/CBP in signalling induced by interferon-α. Nature383:344–347
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Biron C. A., Nguyen K. B., Pien G. C., Cousens L. P., Salazar-Mather T. P.. 1999; Natural killer cells in antiviral defense: function and regulation by innate cytokines. Annual Review of Immunology17:189–220
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Black T. L., Safer B., Hovanessian A., Katze M. G.. 1989; The cellular 68,000- M r protein kinase is highly autophosphorylated and activated yet significantly degraded during poliovirus infection: implications for translational regulation. Journal of Virology63:2244–2251
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Black T. L., Barber G. N., Katze M. G.. 1993; Degradation of the interferon-induced 68,000- M r protein kinase by poliovirus requires RNA. Journal of Virology67:791–800
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Boehm U., Klamp T., Groot M., Howard J. C.. 1997; Cellular responses to interferon-gamma. Annual Review of Immunology15:749–795
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Bovolenta C., Lorini A. L., Mantelli B., Camorali L., Novelli F., Biswas P., Poli G.. 1999; A selective defect of IFN-gamma- but not of IFN-alpha-induced JAK/STAT pathway in a subset of U937 clones prevents the antiretroviral effect of IFN-gamma against HIV-1. Journal of Immunology162:323–330
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Brand S. R., Kobayashi R., Mathews M. B.. 1997; The Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is a substrate and inhibitor of the interferon-induced, virally activated protein kinase, PKR. Journal of Biological Chemistry272:8388–8395
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Briscoe J., Rogers N. C., Witthuhn B. A., Watling D., Harpur A. G., Wilks A. F., Stark G. R., Ihle J. N., Kerr I. M.. 1996; Kinase-negative mutants of JAK1 can sustain interferon-gamma-inducible gene expression but not an antiviral state. EMBO Journal15:799–809
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Buchmeier N. A., Schreiber R. D.. 1985; Requirement of endogenous interferon-gamma production for resolution of Listeria monocytogenes infection. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA82:7404–7408
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Buschle M., Campana D., Carding S. R., Richard C., Hoffbrand A. V., Brenner M. K.. 1993; Interferon gamma inhibits apoptotic cell death in B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Journal of Experimental Medicine177:213–218
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Cai R., Carpick B., Chun R. F., Jeang K. T., Williams B. R.. 2000; HIV-I TAT inhibits PKR activity by both RNA-dependent and RNA-independent mechanisms. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics373:361–367
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Cantin E., Tanamachi B., Openshaw H., Mann J., Clarke K.. 1999; Gamma interferon (type II IFN) receptor null-mutant mice are more susceptible to herpes simplex virus type 1 infection than type II IFN ligand null-mutant mice. Journal of Virology73:5196–5200
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Carroll K., Elroy-Stein O., Moss B., Jagus R.. 1993; Recombinant vaccinia virus K3L gene product prevents activation of double-stranded RNA-dependent initiation factor 2 alpha-specific protein kinase. Journal of Biological Chemistry268:12837–12842
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Casey J. L., Gerin J. L.. 1995; Hepatitis D virus RNA editing: specific modification of adenosine in the antigenomic RNA. Journal of Virology69:7593–7600
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Cassady K. A., Gross M., Roizman B.. 1998; The second-site mutation in the herpes simplex virus recombinants lacking the γ134.5 genes precludes shutoff of protein synthesis by blocking the phosphorylation of eIF-2α. Journal of Virology72:7005–7011
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Castelli J. C., Hassel B. A., Maran A., Paranjape J., Hewitt J. A., Li X. L., Hsu Y. T., Silverman R. H., Youle R. J.. 1998a; The role of 2′–5′ oligoadenylate-activated ribonuclease L in apoptosis. Cell Death and Differentiation5:313–320
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Castelli J., Wood K. A., Youle R. J.. 1998b; The 2–5A system in viral infection and apoptosis. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy52:386–390
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Cattaneo R.. 1994; Biased (A→I) hypermutation of animal RNA virus genomes. Current Opinion in Genetics & Development4:895–900
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Cayley P. J., Knight M., Kerr I. M.. 1982; Virus-mediated inhibition of the ppp(A2′p)nA system and its prevention by interferon. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications104:376–382
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Cayley P. J., Davies J. A., McCullagh K. G., Kerr I. M.. 1984; Activation of the ppp(A2′p)nA system in interferon-treated, herpes simplex virus-infected cells and evidence for novel inhibitors of the ppp(A2′p)nA-dependent RNase. European Journal of Biochemistry15:165–174
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Chang H. W., Watson J. L., Jacobs B. L.. 1992; The E3L gene of vaccinia virus encodes an inhibitor of PKR. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA:89:4825–4829
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Chang J., Renne R., Dittmer D., Ganem D.. 2000; Inflammatory cytokines and the reactivation of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lytic replication. Virology266:17–25
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Chatterjee-Kishore M., Kishore R., Hicklin D. J., Marincola F. M., Ferrone S.. 1998; Different requirements for signal transducer and activator of transcription 1α and interferon regulatory factor 1 in the regulation of low molecular mass polypeptide 2 and transporter associated with antigen processing 1 gene expression. Journal of Biological Chemistry273:16177–16183
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Chebath J., Benech P., Revel M., Vigneron M.. 1987; Constitutive expression of (2′–5′) oligo A synthetase confers resistance to picornavirus infection. Nature330:587–588
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Chen Z., Li Y., Krug R. M.. 1999; Influenza A virus NS1 protein targets poly(A)-binding protein II of the cellular 3′-end processing machinery. EMBO Journal18:2273–2283
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Chin Y. E., Kitagawa M., Su W. C., You Z. H., Iwamoto Y., Fu X. Y.. 1996; Cell growth arrest and induction of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 WAF1/CIP1 mediated by STAT1. Science272:719–722
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Chin Y. E., Kitagawa M., Kuida K., Flavell R. A., Fu X.-Y.. 1997; Activation of the STAT signaling pathway can cause expression of caspase 1 and apoptosis. Molecular and Cellular Biology17:5328–5337
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Chinsangaram J., Piccone M. E., Grubman M. J.. 1999; Ability of foot-and-mouth disease virus to form plaques in cell culture is associated with suppression of alpha/beta interferon. Journal of Virology73:9891–9898
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Chong K. L., Feng L., Schappert K., Meurs E., Donahue T. F., Friesen J. D., Hovanessian A. G., Williams B. R.. 1992; Human p68 kinase exhibits growth suppression in yeast and homology to the translational regulator GCN2. EMBO Journal11:1553–1562
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Choubey D., Gutterman J. U.. 1997; Inhibition of E2F-4/DP-1-stimulated transcription by p202. Oncogene15:291–301
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Choubey D., Lengyel P.. 1995; Binding of an interferon-inducible protein (p202) to the retinoblastoma protein. Journal of Biological Chemistry270:6134–6140
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Choubey D., Li S. J., Datta B., Gutterman J. U., Lengyel P.. 1996; Inhibition of E2F-mediated transcription by p202. EMBO Journal15:5668–5678
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Chu W. M., Ostertag D., Li Z. W., Chang L., Chen Y., Hu Y., Williams B., Perrault J., Karin M.. 1999; JNK2 and IKKβ are required for activating the innate response to viral infection. Immunity11:721–731
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Clemens M. J., Elia A.. 1997; The double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR: structure and function. Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research17:503–524
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Coccia E. M., Romeo G., Nissim A., Marziali G., Albertini R., Affabris E., Battistini A., Fiorucci G., Orsatti R., Rossi G. B.. and others 1990; A full-length murine 2–5A synthetase cDNA transfected in NIH-3T3 cells impairs EMCV but not VSV replication. Virology179:228–233
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Colamonici O., Yan H., Domanski P., Handa R., Smalley D., Mullersman J., Witte M., Krishnan K., Krolewski J.. 1994; Direct binding and tyrosine phosphorylation of the α-subunit of the type I IFN receptor by the p135tyk2 tyrosine kinase. Molecular and Cellular Biology14:8133–8142
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Colamonici O. R., Domanski P., Sweitzer S. M., Larner A., Buller R. M. L.. 1995; Vaccinia virus B18R gene encodes a type I interferon-binding protein that blocks interferon α transmembrane signaling. Journal of Biological Chemistry270:15974–15978
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Cousens L. P., Peterson R., Hsu S., Dorner A., Altman J. D., Ahmed R., Biron C. A.. 1999; Two roads diverged: interferon alpha/beta- and interleukin 12-mediated pathways in promoting T cell interferon gamma responses during viral infection. Journal of Experimental Medicine189:1315–1328
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Cuddihy A. R., Li S., Tam N. W., Wong A. H., Taya Y., Abraham N., Bell J. C., Koromilas A. E.. 1999a; Double-stranded-RNA-activated protein kinase PKR enhances transcriptional activation by tumor suppressor p53. Molecular and Cellular Biology19:2475–2484
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Cuddihy A. R., Wong A. H., Tam N. W., Li S., Koromilas A. E.. 1999b; The double-stranded RNA activated protein kinase PKR physically associates with the tumor suppressor p53 protein and phosphorylates human p53 on serine 392 in vitro. Oncogene18:2690–2702
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Cuff S., Ruby J.. 1996; Evasion of apoptosis by DNA viruses. Immunology and Cell Biology74:527–537
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Dalton D. K., Pitts-Meek S., Keshav S., Figari I. S., Bradley A., Stewart T. A.. 1993; Multiple defects of immune cell function in mice with disrupted interferon-gamma genes. Science259:1739–1742
    [Google Scholar]
  60. David M., Chen E., Goelz S., Larner A. C., Neel A. C.. 1995; Differential regulation of the alpha/beta interferon-stimulated Jak/Stat pathway by the SH2-domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase SHPTP1. Molecular and Cellular Biology15:7050–7058
    [Google Scholar]
  61. David M., Zhou G., Pine R., Dixon J. E., Larner A. C.. 1996; The SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase PTP1D is required for interferon alpha/beta-induced gene expression. Journal of Biological Chemistry271:15862–15865
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Davies M. V., Elroy-Stein O., Jagus R., Moss B., Kaufman R. J.. 1992; The vaccinia virus K3L gene product potentiates translation by inhibiting double-stranded-RNA-activated protein kinase and phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2. Journal of Virology66:1943–1950
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Davies M. V., Chang H.-W., Jacobs B. L., Kaufman R. J.. 1993; The E3L and K3L vaccinia virus gene products stimulate translation through inhibition of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase by different mechanisms. Journal of Virology67:1688–1692
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Der S. D., Yang Y.-L., Weissmann C., Williams B. R. G.. 1997; A double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway mediating stress-induced apoptosis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA94:3279–3283
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Der S. D., Zhou A., Williams B. R., Silverman R. H.. 1998; Identification of genes differentially regulated by interferon alpha, beta, or gamma using oligonucleotide arrays. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA95:15623–15628
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Desai S. Y., Patel R. C., Sen G. C., Malhotra P., Ghadge G. D., Thimmapaya B.. 1995; Activation of interferon-inducible 2′–5′ oligoadenylate synthetase by adenoviral VAI RNA. Journal of Biological Chemistry270:3454–3461
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Dever T. E., Chen J. J., Barber J. N., Cigan A. M., Feng L., Donahue T. F., London I. M., Katze M. G., Hinnebusch A. G.. 1993; Mammalian eukaryotic initiation 2α kinase functionally substitutes for GCN 2 protein kinase in the GCN 4 translational control mechanism of yeast. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA90:4616–4620
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Dever T. E., Sripriya R., McLachlin J. R., Lu J., Fabian-Matcher J. R., Kimball S. R., Miller L. K.. 1998; Disruption of cellular translational control by a viral truncated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α kinase homolog. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA95:4164–4169
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Diaz-Guerra M., Rivas C., Esteban M.. 1997; Activation of the IFN-inducible enzyme RNase L causes apoptosis of animal cells. Virology236:354–363
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Didcock L., Young D. F., Goodbourn S., Randall R. E.. 1999a; Sendai virus and simian virus 5 block activation of interferon-responsive genes. Journal of Virology73:3125–3133
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Didcock L., Young D. F., Goodbourn S., Randall R. E.. 1999b; The V protein of simian virus 5 inhibits interferon signalling by targeting STAT1 for proteasome-mediated degradation. Journal of Virology73:9928–9933
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Dighe A. S., Campbell D., Hsieh C. S., Clarke S., Greaves D. R., Gordon S., Murphy K. M., Schreiber R. D.. 1995; Tissue-specific targeting of cytokine unresponsiveness in transgenic mice. Immunity3:657–666
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Doherty T. M., Seder R. A., Sher A.. 1996; Induction and regulation of IL-15 expression in murine macrophages. Journal of Immunology156:735–741
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Dorman S. E., Uzel G., Roesler J., Bradley J. S., Bastian J., Billman G., King S., Filie A., Schermerhorn J., Holland S. M.. 1999; Viral infections in interferon-gamma receptor deficiency. Journal of Pediatrics135:640–643
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Du W., Thanos D., Maniatis T.. 1993; Mechanism of transcriptional synergism between distinct virus-inducible enhancer elements. Cell74:887–898
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Endo T. A., Masuhara M., Yokouchi M., Suzuki R., Sakamoto H., Mitsui K., Matsumoto A., Tanimura S., Ohtsubo M., Misawa H., Miyazaki T., Leonor N., Taniguchi T., Fujita T., Kanakura Y., Komiya S., Yoshimura A.. 1997; A new protein containing an SH2 domain that inhibits JAK kinases. Nature387:921–924
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Epperson D. E., Arnold D., Spies T., Cresswell P., Pober J. S., Johnson D. R.. 1992; Cytokines increase transporter in antigen processing-1 expression more rapidly than HLA class I expression in endothelial cells. Journal of Immunology149:3297–3301
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Erlandsson L., Blumenthal R., Eloranta M. L., Engel H., Alm G., Weiss S., Leanderson T.. 1998; Interferon-beta is required for interferon-alpha production in mouse fibroblasts. Current Biology8:223–226
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Fawaz L. M., Sharif-Askari E., Menezes J.. 1999; Up-regulation of NK cytotoxic activity via IL-15 induction by different viruses: a comparative study. Journal of Immunology163:4473–4480
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Fehniger T. A., Shah M. H., Turner M. J., VanDeusen J. B., Whitman S. P., Cooper M. A., Suzuki K., Wechser M., Goodsaid F., Caligiuri M. A.. 1999; Differential cytokine and chemokine gene expression by human NK cells following activation with IL-18 or IL-15 in combination with IL-12: implications for the innate immune response. Journal of Immunology162:4511–4520
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Ferran M. C., Lucas-Lenard J. M.. 1997; The vesicular stomatitis virus matrix protein inhibits transcription from the human beta interferon promoter. Journal of Virology71:371–377
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Fiette L., Aubert C., Muller U., Huang S., Aguet M., Brahic M., Bureau J. F.. 1995; Theiler’s virus infection of 129Sv mice that lack the interferon alpha/beta or interferon gamma receptors. Journal of Experimental Medicine181:2069–2076
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Flati V., Haque S. J., Williams B. R.. 1996; Interferon-alpha-induced phosphorylation and activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 is required for the formation of interferon-stimulated gene factor three. EMBO Journal15:1566–1571
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Flesch I. E., Hess J. H., Huang S., Aguet M., Rothe J., Bluethmann H., Kaufmann S. H.. 1995; Early interleukin 12 production by macrophages in response to mycobacterial infection depends on interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Journal of Experimental Medicine181:1615–1621
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Foo S. Y., Nolan G. P.. 1999; NF-κB to the rescue: RELs, apoptosis and cellular transformation. Trends in Genetics15:229–235
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Fortes P., Beloso A., Ortin J.. 1994; Influenza virus NS1 protein inhibits pre-mRNA splicing and blocks mRNA nucleocytoplasmic transport. EMBO Journal13:704–712
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Foss G. S., Prydz H.. 1999; Interferon regulatory factor 1 mediates the interferon-gamma induction of the human immunoproteasome subunit multicatalytic endopeptidase complex-like 1. Journal of Biological Chemistry274:35196–35202
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Frese M., Kochs G., Meier-Dieter U., Siebler J., Haller O.. 1995; Human MxA protein inhibits tick-borne Thogoto virus but not Dhori virus. Journal of Virology69:3904–3909
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Frese M., Kochs G., Feldmann H., Hertkorn C., Haller O.. 1996; Inhibition of bunyaviruses, phleboviruses and hantaviruses by human MxA protein. Journal of Virology70:915–923
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Frese M., Weeber M., Weber F., Speth V., Haller O.. 1997; Mx1 sensitivity: Batken virus is an orthomyxovirus closely related to Dhori virus. Journal of General Virology78:2453–2458
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Friedman R. L., Manly S. P., McMahon M., Kerr I. M., Stark G. R.. 1984; Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of interferon-induced gene expression in human cells. Cell38:745–755
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Fujimoto I., Takizawa T., Ohba Y., Nakanishi Y.. 1998; Co-expression of Fas and Fas-ligand on the surface of influenza virus-infected cells. Cell Death and Differentiation5:426–431
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Fujita T., Kimura Y., Miyamoto M., Barsoumian E. L., Taniguchi T.. 1989a; Induction of endogenous IFN-α and IFN-β genes by a regulatory transcription factor, IRF-1. Nature337:270–272
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Fujita T., Reis L. F., Watanabe N., Kimura Y., Taniguchi T., Vilcek J.. 1989b; Induction of the transcription factor IRF-1 and interferon-beta mRNAs by cytokines and activators of second-messenger pathways. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA86:9936–9940
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Furukawa Y., Iwase S., Kikuchi J., Nakamura M., Yamada H., Matsuda M.. 1999; Transcriptional repression of the E2F-1 gene by interferon-alpha is mediated through induction of E2F-4/pRB and E2F-4/p130 complexes. Oncogene18:2003–2014
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Gajewski T. F., Fitch F. W.. 1988; Anti-proliferative effect of IFN-gamma in immune regulation. I. IFN-gamma inhibits the proliferation of Th2 but not Th1 murine helper T lymphocyte clones. Journal of Immunology140:4245–4252
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Gale M. Jr, Katze M. G.. 1998; Molecular mechanisms of interferon resistance mediated by viral-directed inhibition of PKR, the interferon-induced protein kinase. Pharmacology & Therapeutics78:29–46
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Gale M. J. Jr, Korth M. J., Tang N. M., Tan S.-L., Hopkins D. A., Dever T. E., Polyak S. J., Gretch D. R., Katze M. G.. 1997; Evidence that hepatitis C virus resistance to interferon is mediated through repression of the PKR protein kinase by the nonstructural 5A protein. Virology230:217–227
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Garcia-Sastre A., Durbin R. K., Zheng H., Palese P., Gertner R., Levy D. E., Durbin J. E.. 1998; The role of interferon in influenza virus tissue tropism. Journal of Virology72:8550–8558
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Garcin D., Latorre P., Kolakofsky D.. 1999; Sendai virus C proteins counteract the interferon-mediated induction of an antiviral state. Journal of Virology73:6559–6565
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Gartel A. L., Serfas M. S., Tyner A. L.. 1996; p21 – negative regulator of the cell cycle. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine213:138–149
    [Google Scholar]
  102. George C. X., Thomis D. C., McCormack S. J., Svahn C. M., Samuel C. E.. 1996; Characterization of the heparin-mediated activation of PKR, the interferon-inducible RNA-dependent protein kinase. Virology221:180–188
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Gil J., Alcami J., Esteban M.. 1999; Induction of apoptosis by double-stranded-RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) involves the alpha subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 and NF-kappaB. Molecular and Cellular Biology19:4653–4663
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Gillet G., Brun G.. 1996; Viral inhibition of apoptosis. Trends in Microbiology4:312–317
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Goatley L. C., Marron M. B., Jacobs S. C., Hammond J. M., Miskin J. E., Abrams C. C., Smith G. L., Dixon L. K.. 1999; Nuclear and nucleolar localization of an African swine fever virus protein, I14L, that is similar to the herpes simplex virus-encoded virulence factor ICP34.5. Journal of General Virology80:525–535
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Goh K. C., Haque S. J., Williams B. R.. 1999; p38 MAP kinase is required for STAT1 serine phosphorylation and transcriptional activation induced by interferons. EMBO Journal18:5601–5608
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Gosselin J., TomoIu A., Gallo R. C., Flamand L.. 1999; Interleukin-15 as an activator of natural killer cell-mediated antiviral response. Blood94:4210–4219
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Gotoh B., Takeuchi K., Komatsu T., Yokoo J., Kimura Y., Kurotani A., Kato A., Nagai Y.. 1999; Knockout of the Sendai virus C gene eliminates the viral ability to prevent the interferon-alpha/beta-mediated responses. FEBS Letters459:205–210
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Grawunder U., Melchers F., Rolink A.. 1993; Interferon-gamma arrests proliferation and causes apoptosis in stromal cell/interleukin-7-dependent normal murine pre-B cell lines and clones in vitro, but does not induce differentiation to surface immunoglobulin-positive B cells. European Journal of Immunology23:544–551
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Greenlund A. C., Farrar M. A., Viviano B. L., Schreiber R. D.. 1994; Ligand-induced IFN gamma receptor tyrosine phosphorylation couples the receptor to its signal transduction system (p91). EMBO Journal13:1591–1600
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Greenlund A. C., Morales M. O., Viviano B. L., Yan H., Krolewski J., Schreiber R. D.. 1995; Stat recruitment by tyrosine-phosphorylated cytokine receptors: an ordered reversible affinity-driven process. Immunity2:677–687
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Grieder F. B., Vogel S. N.. 1999; Role of interferon and interferon regulatory factors in early protection against Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection. Virology257:106–118
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Grob P., Schijns V. E., van den Broek M. F., Cox S. P., Ackermann M., Suter M.. 1999; Role of the individual interferon systems and specific immunity in mice in controlling systemic dissemination of attenuated pseudorabies virus infection. Journal of Virology73:4748–4754
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Gunnery S., Rice A. P., Robertson H. D., Mathews M. B.. 1990; Tat-responsive region RNA of human immunodeficiency virus 1 can prevent activation of the double-stranded-RNA-activated protein kinase. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA87:8687–8691
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Gutterman J. U., Choubey D.. 1999; Retardation of cell proliferation after expression of p202 accompanies an increase in p21(WAF1/CIP1. Cell Growth & Differentiation10:93–100
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Haig D. M., McInnes C. J., Thomson J., Wood A., Bunyan K., Mercer A.. 1998; The orf virus OV20.0L gene product is involved in interferon resistance and inhibits an interferon-inducible, double-stranded RNA-dependent kinase. Immunology93:335–340
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Hajjar A. M., Linial M. L.. 1995; Modification of retroviral RNA by double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase. Journal of Virology69:5878–5882
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Haller O., Frese M., Rost D., Nuttall P. A., Kochs G.. 1995; Tick-borne Thogoto virus infection in mice is inhibited by the orthomyxovirus resistance gene product Mx1. Journal of Virology69:2596–2601
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Hannigan G. E., Williams B. R.. 1991; Signal transduction by interferon-alpha through arachidonic acid metabolism. Science251:204–207
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Haque S. J., Williams B. R.. 1994; Identification and characterization of an interferon (IFN)-stimulated response element–IFN-stimulated gene factor 3-independent signaling pathway for IFN-alpha. Journal of Biological Chemistry269:19523–19529
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Haque S. J., Williams B. R.. 1998; Signal transduction in the interferon system. Seminars in Oncology25:14–22
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Haque S. J., Flati V., Deb A., Williams B. R.. 1995; Roles of protein-tyrosine phosphatases in Stat1 alpha-mediated cell signaling. Journal of Biological Chemistry270:25709–25714
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Harada H., Fujita T., Miyamoto M., Kimura Y., Maruyama M., Furia A., Miyata T., Taniguchi T.. 1989; Structurally similar but functionally distinct factors, IRF-1 and IRF-2, bind to the same regulatory elements of IFN and IFN-inducible genes. Cell58:729–739
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Harcourt B. H., Sanchez A., Offermann M. K.. 1998; Ebola virus inhibits induction of genes by double-stranded RNA in endothelial cells. Virology252:179–188
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Harper J. W., Adami G. R., Wei N., Keyomarsi K., Elledge S. J.. 1993; The p21 Cdk-interacting protein Cip1 is a potent inhibitor of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases. Cell75:805–816
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Harroch S., Revel M., Chebath J.. 1994; Induction by interleukin-6 of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) gene expression through the palindromic interferon response element pIRE and cell type-dependent control of IRF-1 binding to DNA. EMBO Journal13:1942–1949
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Hassel B. A., Zhou A., Sotomayor C., Maran A., Silverman R. H.. 1993; A dominant negative mutant of 2–5A-dependent RNase suppresses antiproliferative and antiviral effects of interferon. EMBO Journal12:3297–3304
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Hatada E., Saito S., Fukuda R.. 1999; Mutant influenza viruses with a defective NS1 protein cannot block the activation of PKR in infected cells. Virology73:2425–2433
    [Google Scholar]
  129. He B., Gross M., Roizman B.. 1997; The γ134.5 protein of herpes simplex virus 1 complexes with protein phosphatase 1a to dephosphorylate the α subunit of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 and preclude the shutoff of protein synthesis by double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA:94:843–848
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Hefti H. P., Frese M., Landis H., Di Paolo C., Aguzzi A., Haller O., Pavlovic J.. 1999; Human MxA protein protects mice lacking a functional alpha/beta interferon system against La crosse virus and other lethal viral infections. Journal of Virology73:6984–6991
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Heim M. H., Kerr I. M., Stark G. R., Darnell J. E. Jr. 1995; Contribution of STAT SH2 groups to specific interferon signaling by the Jak–STAT pathway. Science267:1347–1349
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Heim M. H., Moradpur D., Blum H. E.. 1999; Expression of hepatitis C virus proteins inhibits signal transduction through the Jak–STAT pathway. Journal of Virology73:8469–8475
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Henderson Y. C., Chou M., Deisseroth A. B.. 1997; Interferon regulatory factor 1 induces the expression of the interferon-stimulated genes. British Journal of Haematology96:566–575
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Horikami S. M., Moyer S. A.. 1995; Double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase activity during measles virus infection. Virus Research36:87–96
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Hsieh C. S., Macatonia S. E., Tripp C. S., Wolf S. F., O’Garra A., Murphy K. M.. 1993; Development of TH1 CD4+ T cells through IL-12 produced by Listeria-induced macrophages. Science260:547–549
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Hsu D. H., de Waal Malefyt R., Fiorentino D. F., Dang M. N., Vieira P., de Vries J., Spits H., Mosmann T. R., Moore K. W.. 1990; Expression of interleukin-10 activity by Epstein–Barr virus protein BCRF1. Science250:830–832
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Huang S., Hendriks W., Althage A., Hemmi S., Bluethmann H., Kamijo R., Vilcek J., Zinkernagel R. M., Aguet M.. 1993; Immune response in mice that lack the interferon-gamma receptor. Science259:1742–1745
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Hwang S. Y., Hertzog P. J., Holland K. A., Sumarsono S. H., Tymms M. J., Hamilton J. A., Whitty G., Bertoncello I., Kola I.. 1995; A null mutation in the gene encoding a type I interferon receptor component eliminates antiproliferative and antiviral responses to interferons alpha and beta and alters macrophage responses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA92:11284–11288
    [Google Scholar]
  139. Igarashi K., David M., Larner A. C., Finbloom D. S.. 1993; In vitro activation of a transcription factor by gamma interferon requires a membrane-associated tyrosine kinase and is mimicked by vanadate. Molecular and Cellular Biology13:3984–3989
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Igarashi K., Garotta G., Ozmen L., Ziemiecki A., Wilks A. F., Harpur A. G., Larner A. C., Finbloom D. S.. 1994; Interferon-gamma induces tyrosine phosphorylation of interferon-gamma receptor and regulated association of protein tyrosine kinases, Jak1 and Jak2, with its receptor. Journal of Biological Chemistry269:14333–14336
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Iordanov M. S., Paranjape J. M., Zhou A., Wong J., Williams B. R., Meurs E. F., Silverman R. H., Magun B. E.. 2000; Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase by double-stranded RNA and encephalomyocarditis virus: involvement of RNase L, protein kinase R, and alternative pathways. Molecular and Cellular Biology20:617–627
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Israel A.. 2000; The IKK complex: an integrator of signals that activate NF-κB?Trends in. Cell Biology10:129–133
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Iwase S., Furukawa Y., Kikuchi J., Nagai M., Terui Y., Nakamura M., Yamada H.. 1997; Modulation of E2F activity is linked to interferon-induced growth suppression of hematopoietic cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry272:12406–12414
    [Google Scholar]
  144. Jacobs B. L., Langland J. O.. 1996; When two strands are better than one: the mediators and modulators of the cellular responses to double-stranded RNA. Virology219:339–349
    [Google Scholar]
  145. Jacobs B. L., Langland J. O.. 1998; Reovirus sigma 3 protein: dsRNA binding and inhibition of RNA-activated protein kinase. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology233:185–196
    [Google Scholar]
  146. Jagus R., Joshi B., Barber G. N.. 1999; PKR, apoptosis and cancer. International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology31:123–138
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Janknecht R., Hunter T.. 1996; Transcription. A growing coactivator network. Nature383:22–23
    [Google Scholar]
  148. Jaramillo M. L., Abraham N., Bell J. C.. 1995; The interferon system: a review with emphasis on the role of PKR in growth control. Cancer Investigations13:327–338
    [Google Scholar]
  149. Johnson A. J., Roehrig J. T.. 1999; New mouse model for dengue virus vaccine testing. Journal of Virology73:783–786
    [Google Scholar]
  150. Johnstone R. W., Kerry J. A., Trapani J. A.. 1998; The human interferon-inducible protein, IFI 16, is a repressor of transcription. Journal of Biological Chemistry273:17172–17177
    [Google Scholar]
  151. Kanda K., Decker T., Aman P., Wahlstrom M., von Gabain A., Kallin B.. 1992; The EBNA2-related resistance towards α interferon (IFN-α) in Burkitt’s lymphoma cells effects induction of IFN-induced genes but not the activation of transcription factor ISGF-3. Molecular and Cellular Biology12:4930–4936
    [Google Scholar]
  152. Kanerva M., Melen K., Vaheri A., Julkunen I.. 1996; Inhibition of puumala and tula hantaviruses in Vero cells by MxA protein. Virology224:55–62
    [Google Scholar]
  153. Kano A., Haruyama T., Akaike T., Watanabe Y.. 1999; IRF-1 is an essential mediator in IFN-gamma-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of primary cultured hepatocytes. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications257:672–677
    [Google Scholar]
  154. Kaplan D. H., Greenlund A. C., Tanner J. W., Shaw A. S., Schreiber R. D.. 1996; Identification of an interferon-gamma receptor alpha chain sequence required for JAK-1 binding. Journal of Biological Chemistry271:9–12
    [Google Scholar]
  155. Karlsen A. E., Pavlovic D., Nielsen K., Jensen J., Andersen H. U., Pociot F., Mandrup-Poulsen T., Eizirik D. L., Nerup J.. 2000; Interferon-gamma induces interleukin-1 converting enzyme expression in pancreatic islets by an interferon regulatory factor-1-dependent mechanism. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism85:830–836
    [Google Scholar]
  156. Kaser A., Enrich B., Ludwiczek O., Vogel W., Tilg H.. 1999; Interferon-α (IFN-α) enhances cytotoxicity in healthy volunteers and chronic hepatitis C infection mainly by the perforin pathway. Clinical and Experimental Immunology118:71–77
    [Google Scholar]
  157. Katze M. G., Wambach M., Wong M. L., Garfinkel M., Meurs E., Chong K., Williams B. R., Hovanessian A. G., Barber G. N.. 1991; Functional expression and RNA binding analysis of the interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-activated, 68,000- M r protein kinase in a cell-free system. Molecular and Cellular Biology11:5497–5505
    [Google Scholar]
  158. Kerr I. M., Brown R. E.. 1978; pppA2′p5′A2′p5′A: an inhibitor of protein synthesis synthesized with an enzyme fraction from interferon-treated cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA75:256–260
    [Google Scholar]
  159. Kim T. K., Maniatis T.. 1996; Regulation of interferon-γ-activated STAT1 by the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway. Science273:1717–1719
    [Google Scholar]
  160. Kimura T., Nakayama K., Penninger J., Kitagawa M., Harada H., Matsuyama T., Tanaka N., Kamijo R., Vilcek J., Mak T. W., Taniguchi T.. 1994; Involvement of the IRF-1 transcription factor in antiviral responses to interferons. Science264:1921–1924
    [Google Scholar]
  161. King P., Goodbourn S.. 1998; STAT1 is inactivated by a caspase. Journal of Biological Chemistry273:8699–8704
    [Google Scholar]
  162. Kingsmore S. F., Snoddy J., Choubey D., Lengyel P., Seldin M. F.. 1989; Physical mapping of a family of interferon-activated genes, serum amyloid P-component, and alpha-spectrin on mouse chromosome 1. Immunogenetics30:169–174
    [Google Scholar]
  163. Kirch H. C., Putzer B., Brockmann D., Esche H., Kloke O.. 1997; Formation of the early-region-2 transcription-factor-1-retinoblastoma-protein (E2F-1-RB) transrepressor and release of the retinoblastoma protein from nuclear complexes containing cyclin A is induced by interferon alpha in U937V cells but not in interferon-alpha-resistant U937VR cells. European Journal of Biochemistry246:736–744
    [Google Scholar]
  164. Komatsu T., Takeuchi K., Yokoo J., Tanaka Y., Gotoh B.. 2000; Sendai virus blocks alpha interferon signaling to signal transducers and activators of transcription. Journal of Virology74:2477–2480
    [Google Scholar]
  165. Koromilas A. E., Roy S., Barber G. N., Katze M. G., Sonenberg N.. 1992; Malignant transformation by a mutant of the IFN-inducible dsRNA-dependent protein kinase. Science257:1685–1689
    [Google Scholar]
  166. Kotenko S. V., Izotova L. S., Pollack B. P., Mariano T. M., Donnelly R. J., Muthukumaran G., Cook J. R., Garotta G., Silvennoinen O., Ihle J. N., Kerr I.. 1995; Interaction between the components of the interferon gamma receptor complex. Journal of Biological Chemistry270:20915–20921
    [Google Scholar]
  167. Kovarik P., Stoiber D., Eyers P. A., Menghini R., Neininger A., Gaestel M., Cohen P., Decker T.. 1999; Stress-induced phosphorylation of STAT1 at Ser727 requires p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase whereas IFN-gamma uses a different signaling pathway. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA96:13956–13961
    [Google Scholar]
  168. Kumar A., Haque J., Lacoste J., Hiscott J., Williams B. R. G.. 1994; Double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase activates transcription factor NF-κB by phosphorylating IκB. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA91:6288–6292
    [Google Scholar]
  169. Kumar A., Yang Y. L., Flati V., Der S., Kadereit S., Deb A., Haque J., Reis L., Weissmann C., Williams B. R.. 1997; Deficient cytokine signaling in mouse embryo fibroblasts with a targeted deletion in the PKR gene: role of IRF-1 and NF-κB. EMBO Journal16:406–416
    [Google Scholar]
  170. Landis H., Simon-Jodicke A., Kloti A., Di Paolo C., Schnorr J. J., Schneider-Schaulies S., Hefti H. P., Pavlovic J.. 1998; Human MxA protein confers resistance to Semliki Forest virus and inhibits the amplification of a Semliki Forest virus-based replicon in the absence of viral structural proteins. Journal of Virology72:1516–1522
    [Google Scholar]
  171. Langland J. O., Pettiford S., Jiang B., Jacobs B. L.. 1994; Products of the porcine group C rotavirus NSP3 gene bind specifically to double-stranded RNA and inhibit activation of the interferon-induced protein kinase PKR. Journal of Virology68:3821–3829
    [Google Scholar]
  172. Larner A. C., Chaudhuri A., Darnell J. E. Jr. 1986; Transcriptional induction by interferon. New protein(s) determine the extent and length of the induction. Journal of Biological Chemistry261:453–459
    [Google Scholar]
  173. Lechleitner S., Gille J., Johnson D. R., Petzelbauer P.. 1998; Interferon enhances tumor necrosis factor-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (CD106) expression in human endothelial cells by an interferon-related factor 1-dependent pathway. Journal of Experimental Medicine187:2023–2030
    [Google Scholar]
  174. Lee T. G., Tomita J., Hovanessian A. G., Katze M. G.. 1990; Purification and partial characterization of a cellular inhibitor of the interferon-induced protein kinase of M r 68,000 from influenza virus-infected cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA87:6208–6212
    [Google Scholar]
  175. Lee T. G., Tomita J., Hovanessian A. G., Katze M. G.. 1992; Characterization and regulation of the 58,000-dalton cellular inhibitor of the interferon-induced, dsRNA-activated protein kinase. Journal of Biological Chemistry267:14238–14243
    [Google Scholar]
  176. Lee T. G., Tang N., Thompson S., Miller J., Katze M. G.. 1994; The 58,000-dalton cellular inhibitor of the interferon-induced double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) is a member of the tetratricopeptide repeat family of proteins. Molecular and Cellular Biology14:2331–2342
    [Google Scholar]
  177. Lee S. B., Rodriguez D., Rodriguez J. R., Esteban M.. 1997; The apoptosis pathway triggered by the interferon-induced protein kinase PKR requires the third basic domain, initiates upstream of Bcl-2, and involves ICE-like proteases. Virology231:81–88
    [Google Scholar]
  178. Leib D. A., Machalek M. A., Williams B. R. G., Silverman R. H., Virgin H. W.. 2000; Specific phenotypic restoration of an attenuated virus by knockout of a host resistance gene. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA97:6097–6101
    [Google Scholar]
  179. Lembo D., Angeretti A., Benefazio S., Hertel L., Gariglio M., Novelli F., Landolfo S.. 1995; Constitutive expression of the interferon-inducible protein p202 in NIH 3T3 cells affects cell cycle progression. Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents9:42–46
    [Google Scholar]
  180. Lenardo M. J., Fan C.-M., Maniatis T., Baltimore D.. 1989; The involvement of NF-κB in β-interferon gene regulation reveals its role as a widely inducible mediator of signal transduction. Cell57:287–294
    [Google Scholar]
  181. Leonard G. T., Sen G. C.. 1996; Effects of adenovirus E1A protein on interferon-signaling. Virology224:25–33
    [Google Scholar]
  182. Leung S., Qureshi S. A., Kerr I. M., Darnell J. E. Jr, Stark G. R.. 1995; Role of STAT2 in the alpha interferon signaling pathway. Molecular and Cellular Biology15:1312–1317
    [Google Scholar]
  183. Li X., Leung S., Kerr I. M., Stark G. R.. 1997; Functional subdomains of STAT2 required for preassociation with the alpha interferon receptor and for signaling. Molecular and Cellular Biology17:2048–2056
    [Google Scholar]
  184. Liu Z. G., Hsu H., Goeddel D. V., Karin M.. 1996; Dissection of TNF receptor 1 effector functions: JNK activation is not linked to apoptosis while NF-kappaB activation prevents cell death. Cell87:565–576
    [Google Scholar]
  185. Lloyd R. M., Shatkin A. J.. 1992; Translational stimulation by reovirus polypeptide sigma 3: substitution for VAI RNA and inhibition of phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2. Journal of Virology66:6878–6884
    [Google Scholar]
  186. Look D. C., Roswit W. T., Frick A. G., Gris-Alevy Y., Dickhaus D. M., Walter M. J., Holtzman M. J.. 1998; Direct suppression of Stat1 function during adenoviral infection. Immunity9:871–880
    [Google Scholar]
  187. Lu Y., Qian X. Y., Krug R. M.. 1994; The influenza virus NS1 protein: a novel inhibitor of pre-mRNA splicing. Genes & Development8:1817–1828
    [Google Scholar]
  188. Lu Y., Wambach M., Katze M. G., Krug R. M.. 1995; Binding of the influenza virus NS1 protein to double-stranded RNA inhibits the activation of the protein kinase that phosphorylates the eIF-2 translation initiation factor. Virology214:222–228
    [Google Scholar]
  189. Lu H. T., Yang D. D., Wysk M., Gatti E., Mellman I., Davis R. J., Flavell R. A.. 1999; Defective IL-12 production in mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase 3 (Mkk3)-deficient mice. EMBO Journal18:1845–1857
    [Google Scholar]
  190. MacMicking J., Xie Q. W., Nathan C.. 1997; Nitric oxide and macrophage function. Annual Review of Immunology15:323–350
    [Google Scholar]
  191. McMillan N. A., Chun R. F., Siderovski D. P., Galabru J., Toone W. M., Samuel C. E., Mak T. W., Hovanessian A. G., Jeang K. T., Williams B. R.. 1995; HIV-1 Tat directly interacts with the interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-dependent kinase, PKR. Virology213:413–424
    [Google Scholar]
  192. Maran A., Maitra R. K., Kumar A., Dong B., Xiao W., Li G., Williams B. R., Torrence P. F., Silverman R. H.. 1994; Blockage of NF-kappa B signaling by selective ablation of an mRNA target by 2–5A antisense chimeras. Science265:789–792
    [Google Scholar]
  193. Marie I., Durbin J. E., Levy D. E.. 1998; Differential viral induction of distinct interferon-alpha genes by positive feedback through interferon regulatory factor-7. EMBO Journal17:6660–6669
    [Google Scholar]
  194. Marrack P., Kappler J., Mitchell T.. 1999; Type I interferons keep activated T cells alive. Journal of Experimental Medicine189:521–530
    [Google Scholar]
  195. Martinand C., Salehzada T., Silhol M., Lebleu B., Bisbal C.. 1998; RNase L inhibitor (RLI) antisense constructions block partially the down regulation of the 2–5A/RNase L pathway in encephalomyocarditis-virus-(EMCV)-infected cells. European Journal of Biochemistry254:248–255
    [Google Scholar]
  196. Martinand C., Montavon C., Salehzada T., Silhol M., Lebleu B., Bisbal C.. 1999; RNase L inhibitor induced during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection and down regulates the 2–5A/RNase L pathway in human T cells. Journal of Virology73:290–296
    [Google Scholar]
  197. Martinez-Costas J., Gonzalez-Lopez C., Vakharia V. N., Benavente J.. 2000; Possible involvement of the double-stranded RNA-binding core protein σA in the resistance of avian reovirus to interferon. Journal of Virology74:1124–1131
    [Google Scholar]
  198. Mathews M. B.. 1993; Viral evasion of cellular defense mechanisms: regulation of the protein kinase DAI by RNA effectors. Seminars in Virology4:247–257
    [Google Scholar]
  199. Mathews M. B.. 1995; Structure, function, and evolution of adenovirus virus-associated RNAs. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology199:173–187
    [Google Scholar]
  200. Matsuyama T., Kimura T., Kitagawa M., Pfeffer K., Kawakami T., Watanabe N., Kundig T., Amakawa R., Kishihara K., Wakeham A., Potter J., Furlonger C. L., Narendran A., Suzuki H., Ohashi P. S., Paige C. J., Taniguchi T., Mak T. W.. 1993; Targeted disruption of IRF-1 or IRF-2 results in abnormal type I IFN gene induction and aberrant lymphocyte development. Cell75:83–97
    [Google Scholar]
  201. Melville M. W., Hansen W. J., Freeman B. C., Welch W. J., Katze M. G.. 1997; The molecular chaperone hsp40 regulates the activity of P58IPK, the cellular inhibitor of PKR. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA94:97–102
    [Google Scholar]
  202. Meurs E., Chong K., Galabru J., Thomas N. S., Kerr I. M., Williams B. R., Hovanessian A. G.. 1990; Molecular cloning and characterization of the human double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase induced by interferon. Cell62:379–390
    [Google Scholar]
  203. Meurs E. F., Watanabe Y., Kadereit S., Barber G. N., Katze M. G., Chong K., Williams B. R., Hovanessian A. G.. 1992; Constitutive expression of human double-stranded RNA-activated p68 kinase in murine cells mediates phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 and partial resistance to encephalomyocarditis virus growth. Journal of Virology66:5804–5814
    [Google Scholar]
  204. Miller D. M., Rahill B. M., Boss J. M., Lairmore M. D., Durbin J. E., Waldman J. W., Sedmak D. D.. 1998; Human cytomegalovirus inhibits major histocompatibility complex class II expression by disruption of the Jak/STAT pathway. Journal of Experimental Medicine187:675–683
    [Google Scholar]
  205. Miller D. M., Zhang Y., Rahill B. M., Waldman W. J., Sedmak D. D.. 1999; Human cytomegalovirus inhibits IFN-α-stimulated antiviral and immunoregulatory responses by blocking multiple levels of IFN-α signal transduction. Journal of Immunology162:6107–6113
    [Google Scholar]
  206. Miyamoto M., Fujita T., Kimura Y., Maruyama M., Harada H., Sudo Y., Miyata T., Taniguchi T.. 1988; Regulated expression of a gene encoding a nuclear factor, IRF-1, that specifically binds to IFN-β gene regulatory elements. Cell54:903–913
    [Google Scholar]
  207. Mogensen K. E., Lewerenz M., Reboul J., Lutfalla G., Uze G.. 1999; The type I interferon receptor: structure, function, and evolution of a family business. Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research19:1069–1098
    [Google Scholar]
  208. Mohr I., Gluzman Y.. 1996; A herpesvirus genetic element which affects translation in the absence of the viral GADD34 function. EMBO Journal15:4759–4766
    [Google Scholar]
  209. Mordechai E., Kon N., Henderson E. E., Suhadolnik R. J.. 1995; Activation of the interferon-inducible enzymes, 2′,5′-oligoadenylate synthetase and PKR by human T-cell leukemia virus type I Rex-response element. Virology206:913–922
    [Google Scholar]
  210. Mori S., Jewett A., Cavalcanti M., Murakami-Mori K., Nakamura S., Bonavida B.. 1998; Differential regulation of human NK cell-associated gene expression following activation by IL-2, IFN-alpha and PMA/ionomycin. International Journal of Oncology12:1165–1170
    [Google Scholar]
  211. Mossman K., Upton C., Buller R. M. L., McFadden G.. 1995; Species specificity of ectromelia virus and vaccinia interferon-γ binding proteins. Virology208:762–769
    [Google Scholar]
  212. Mrkic B., Pavlovic J., Rulicke T., Volpe P., Buchholz C. J., Hourcade D., Atkinson J. P., Aguzzi A., Cattaneo R.. 1998; Measles virus spread and pathogenesis in genetically modified mice. Journal of Virology72:7420–7427
    [Google Scholar]
  213. Muller M., Laxton C., Briscoe J., Schindler C., Improta T., Darnell J. E. Jr, Stark G. R., Kerr I. M.. 1993; Complementation of a mutant cell line: central role of the 91 kDa polypeptide of ISGF3 in the interferon-α and -γ signal transduction pathways. EMBO Journal12:4221–4228
    [Google Scholar]
  214. Muller U., Steinhoff U., Reis L. F., Hemmi S., Pavlovic J., Zinkernagel R. M., Aguet M.. 1994; Functional role of type I and type II interferons in antiviral defense. Science264:1918–1921
    [Google Scholar]
  215. Murphy T. L., Cleveland M. G., Kulesza P., Magram J., Murphy K. M.. 1995; Regulation of interleukin 12 p40 expression through an NF-kappa B half-site. Molecular and Cellular Biology15:5258–5267
    [Google Scholar]
  216. Naka T., Narazaki M., Hirata M., Matsumoto T., Minamoto S., Aono A., Nishimoto N., Kajita T., Taga T., Yoshizaki K., Akira S., Kishimoto T.. 1997; Structure and function of a new STAT-induced STAT inhibitor. Nature387:924–929
    [Google Scholar]
  217. Nelson N., Marks M. S., Driggers P. H., Ozato K.. 1993; Interferon consensus sequence-binding protein, a member of the interferon regulatory factor family, suppresses interferon-induced gene transcription. Molecular and Cellular Biology13:588–599
    [Google Scholar]
  218. Nguyen H., Lin R., Hiscott J.. 1997; Activation of multiple growth regulatory genes following inducible expression of IRF-1 or IRF/RelA fusion proteins. Oncogene15:1425–1435
    [Google Scholar]
  219. Nilsen T. W., Baglioni C.. 1979; Mechanism for discrimination between viral and host mRNA in interferon-treated cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA:76:2600–2604
    [Google Scholar]
  220. Novick D., Cohen B., Rubinstein M.. 1994; The human interferon alpha/beta receptor: characterization and molecular cloning. Cell77:391–400
    [Google Scholar]
  221. Nunez R.. 1999; Revision of the functional analysis and structural features of immortalized dendritic cell lines derived from mice lacking both type I and type II interferon receptors. Immunology Letters68:173–186
    [Google Scholar]
  222. O’Connell M. A., Krause S., Higuchi M., Hsuan J. J., Totty N. F., Jenny A., Keller W.. 1995; Cloning of cDNAs encoding mammalian double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase. Molecular and Cellular Biology15:1389–1397
    [Google Scholar]
  223. Offermann M. K., Zimring J., Mellits K. H., Hagan M. K., Shaw R., Medford R. M., Mathews M., Goodbourn S., Jagus R.. 1995; Activation of the double-stranded-RNA-activated protein kinase and induction of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 by poly(I).poly(C) in endothelial cells. European Journal of Biochemistry232:28–36
    [Google Scholar]
  224. Ogasawara K., Hida S., Azimi N., Tagaya Y., Sato T., Yokochi-Fukuda T., Waldmann T. A., Taniguchi T., Taki S.. 1998; Requirement for IRF-1 in the microenvironment supporting development of natural killer cells. Nature391:700–703
    [Google Scholar]
  225. Okamura H., Kashiwamura S., Tsutsui H., Yoshimoto T., Nakanishi K.. 1998; Regulation of interferon-gamma production by IL-12 and IL-18. Current Opinion in Immunology10:259–264
    [Google Scholar]
  226. Oura C. A. L., Powell P. P., Parkhouse R. M. E.. 1998; African swine fever: a disease characterized by apoptosis. Journal of General Virology79:1427–1438
    [Google Scholar]
  227. Patterson J. B., Thomis D. C., Hans S. L., Samuel C. E.. 1995; Mechanism of interferon action: double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase from human cells is inducible by alpha and gamma interferons. Virology210:508–511
    [Google Scholar]
  228. Pavlovic J., Zurcher T., Haller O., Staeheli P.. 1990; Resistance to influenza virus and vesicular stomatitis virus conferred by expression of human MxA protein. Journal of Virology64:3370–3375
    [Google Scholar]
  229. Pavlovic J., Haller O., Staeheli P.. 1992; Human and mouse Mx proteins inhibit different steps of the influenza virus multiplication cycle. Journal of Virology66:2564–2569
    [Google Scholar]
  230. Penix L. A., Sweetser M. T., Weaver W. M., Hoeffler J. P., Kerppola T. K., Wilson C. B.. 1996; The proximal regulatory element of the interferon-gamma promoter mediates selective expression in T cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry271:31964–31972
    [Google Scholar]
  231. Pine R.. 1992; Constitutive expression of an ISGF2/IRF-1 transgene leads to interferon-independent activation of interferon-inducible genes and resistance to virus infection. Journal of Virology66:4470–4478
    [Google Scholar]
  232. Piskurich J. F., Linhoff M. W., Wang Y., Ting J. P.. 1999; Two distinct gamma interferon-inducible promoters of the major histocompatibility complex class II transactivator gene are differentially regulated by STAT1, interferon regulatory factor 1, and transforming growth factor beta. Molecular and Cellular Biology19:431–440
    [Google Scholar]
  233. Pitha P. M., Au W.-C.. 1995; Induction of interferon alpha gene expression. Seminars in Virology6:151–159
    [Google Scholar]
  234. Polson A. G., Bass B. L.. 1994; Preferential selection of adenosines for modification by double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase. EMBO Journal13:5701–5711
    [Google Scholar]
  235. Polson A. G., Bass B. L., Casey J. L.. 1996; RNA editing of hepatitis delta virus antigenome by dsRNA-adenosine deaminase. Nature380:454–456
    [Google Scholar]
  236. Powell P. P., Dixon L. K., Parkhouse R. M.. 1996; An IκB homolog encoded by African swine fever virus provides a novel mechanism for downregulation of proinflammatory cytokine responses in host macrophages. Journal of Virology70:8527–8533
    [Google Scholar]
  237. Qiu Y., Krug R. M.. 1994; The influenza virus NS1 protein is a poly(A)-binding protein that inhibits nuclear export of mRNAs containing poly(A). Journal of Virology68:2425–2432
    [Google Scholar]
  238. Qureshi S. J., Leung S., Kerr I. M., Stark G. R., Darnell J. E. Jr. 1996; Function of Stat2 protein in transcriptional activation by alpha interferon. Molecular and Cellular Biology16:288–293
    [Google Scholar]
  239. Ramaiah K., Davies M. V., Chen J. J., Kaufman R. J.. 1994; Expression of mutant eukaryotic initiation factor 2α subunit (eIF-2α) reduces inhibition of guanine nucleotide exchange activity of eIF-2β mediated by eIF-2α phosphorylation. Molecular and Cellular Biology14:4546–4553
    [Google Scholar]
  240. Ramana C. V., Grammatikakis N., Chernov M., Nguyen H., Goh K. C., Williams B. R., Stark G. R.. 2000; Regulation of c-myc expression by IFN-gamma through Stat1-dependent and -independent pathways. EMBO Journal19:263–272
    [Google Scholar]
  241. Reis L. F. L., Harada H., Wolchok J. D., Taniguchi T., Vilcek J.. 1992; Critical role of a common transcription factor, IRF-1, in the regulation of IFN-β and IFN-inducible genes. EMBO Journal11:185–193
    [Google Scholar]
  242. Reiter Z.. 1993; Interferon – major regulator of natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Journal of Interferon Research13:247–257
    [Google Scholar]
  243. Revilla Y., Callejo M., Rodriguez J. M., Culebras E., Nogal M. L., Salas M. L., Vinuela E., Fresno M.. 1998; Inhibition of nuclear factor κB activation by a virus-encoded IκB-like protein. Journal of Biological Chemistry273:5405–5411
    [Google Scholar]
  244. Rincon M., Enslen H., Raingeaud J., Recht M., Zapton T., Su M. S., Penix L. A., Davis R. J., Flavell R. A.. 1998; Interferon-gamma expression by Th1 effector T cells mediated by the p38 MAP kinase signaling pathway. EMBO Journal17:2817–2829
    [Google Scholar]
  245. Rivas C., Gil J., Melkova Z., Esteban M., Diaz-Guerra M.. 1998; Vaccinia virus E3L protein is an inhibitor of the interferon (IFN)-induced 2–5A synthetase enzyme. Virology243:406–414
    [Google Scholar]
  246. Robertson H. D., Mathews M. B.. 1996; The regulation of the protein kinase PKR by RNA. Biochimie78:909–914
    [Google Scholar]
  247. Rojas R., Roman J., Torres A., Ramirez R., Carracedo J., Lopez R., Garcia J. M., Martin C., Pintado O.. 1996; Inhibition of apoptotic cell death in B-CLL by interferon gamma correlates with clinical stage. Leukemia10:1782–1788
    [Google Scholar]
  248. Ronco L. V., Karpova A. Y., Vidal M., Howley P. M.. 1998; Human papillomavirus 16 E6 oncoprotein binds to interferon regulatory factor-3 and inhibits its transcriptional activity. Genes & Development12:2061–2072
    [Google Scholar]
  249. Rosmurduc O., Sirma H., Soussan P., Gordien E., Lebon P., Horisberger M., Bréchot C., Kremsdorf D.. 1999; Inhibition of interferon-inducible MxA protein expression by hepatitis B virus capsid protein. Journal of General Virology80:1253–1262
    [Google Scholar]
  250. Rousseau V., Cremer I., Lauret E., Riviere I., Aguet M., De Maeyer E.. 1995; Antiviral activity of autocrine interferon-beta requires the presence of a functional interferon type I receptor. Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research15:785–789
    [Google Scholar]
  251. Roy S., Katze M. G., Parkin N. T., Edery I., Hovanessian A. G., Sonenberg N.. 1990; Control of the interferon-induced 68-kilodalton protein kinase by the HIV-1 tat gene product. Science247:1216–1219
    [Google Scholar]
  252. Rysiecki G., Gewert D. R., Williams B. R.. 1989; Constitutive expression of a 2′,5′-oligoadenylate synthetase cDNA results in increased antiviral activity and growth suppression. Journal of Interferon Research9:649–657
    [Google Scholar]
  253. Sakatsume M., Igarashi K., Winestock K. D., Garotta G., Larner A. C., Finbloom D. S.. 1995; The Jak kinases differentially associate with the alpha and beta (accessory factor) chains of the interferon gamma receptor to form a functional receptor unit capable of activating STAT transcription factors. Journal of Biological Chemistry270:17528–17534
    [Google Scholar]
  254. Salkowski C. A., Kopydlowski K., Blanco J., Cody M. J., McNally R., Vogel S. N.. 1999; IL-12 is dysregulated in macrophages from IRF-1 and IRF-2 knockout mice. Journal of Immunology163:1529–1536
    [Google Scholar]
  255. Samuel C. E.. 1998; Reoviruses and the interferon system. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology233:125–145
    [Google Scholar]
  256. Sangfelt O., Erickson S., Castro J., Heiden T., Gustafsson A., Einhorn S., Grander D.. 1999; Molecular mechanisms underlying interferon-α-induced G0/G1 arrest: CKI-mediated regulation of G1 Cdk-complexes and activation of pocket proteins. Oncogene18:2798–2810
    [Google Scholar]
  257. Sato M., Tanaka N., Hata N., Oda E., Taniguchi T.. 1998a; Involvement of the IRF family transcription factor IRF-3 in virus-induced activation of the IFN-beta gene. FEBS Letters425:112–116
    [Google Scholar]
  258. Sato M., Hata N., Asagiri M., Nakaya T., Taniguchi T., Tanaka N.. 1998b; Positive feedback regulation of type I IFN genes by the IFN-inducible transcription factor IRF-7. FEBS Letters441:106–110
    [Google Scholar]
  259. Scadden A. D., Smith C. W.. 1997; A ribonuclease specific for inosine-containing RNA: a potential role in antiviral defence?EMBO. Journal16:2140–2149
    [Google Scholar]
  260. Schafer S. L., Lin R., Moore P. A., Hiscott J., Pitha P. M.. 1998; Regulation of type I interferon gene expression by interferon regulatory factor-3. Journal of Biological Chemistry273:2714–2720
    [Google Scholar]
  261. Schindler C.. 1998; STATs as activators of apoptosis. Trends in Cell Biology8:97–98
    [Google Scholar]
  262. Schindler C., Fu X.-Y., Improta T., Aebersold R., Darnell J. E. Jr. 1992; Proteins of transcription factor ISGF-3: one gene encodes the 91- and 84-kDa proteins that are activated by interferon α. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA89:7836–7839
    [Google Scholar]
  263. Schneider-Schaulies S., Schneider-Schaulies J., Schuster A., Bayer M., Pavlovic J., ter Meulen V.. 1994; Cell type-specific MxA-mediated inhibition of measles virus transcription in human brain cells. Journal of Virology68:6910–6917
    [Google Scholar]
  264. Sekimoto T., Nakajima K., Tachibana T., Hirano T., Yoneda Y.. 1996; Interferon-gamma-dependent nuclear import of Stat1 is mediated by the GTPase activity of Ran/TC4. Journal of Biological Chemistry271:31017–31020
    [Google Scholar]
  265. Sharp T. V., Schwemmle M., Jeffrey I., Laing K., Mellor H., Proud C. G., Hilse K., Clemens M. J.. 1993; Comparative analysis of the regulation of the interferon-inducible protein kinase PKR by Epstein–Barr virus RNAs EBER-1 and EBER-2 and adenovirus VAI RNA. Nucleic Acids Research21:4483–4490
    [Google Scholar]
  266. Sharp T. V., Moonan F., Romashko A., Joshi B., Barber G. N., Jagus R.. 1998; The vaccinia virus E3L gene product interacts with both the regulatory and the substrate binding regions of PKR: implications for PKR autoregulation. Virology250:302–315
    [Google Scholar]
  267. Sharp T. V., Raine D. A., Gewert D. R., Joshi B., Jagus R., Clemens M. J.. 1999; Activation of the interferon-inducible (2′–5′) oligoadenylate synthetase by the Epstein–Barr virus RNA, EBER-1. Virology257:303–313
    [Google Scholar]
  268. Shimizu K., Iguchi A., Gomyou R., Ono Y.. 1999; Influenza virus inhibits cleavage of the HSP70 pre-mRNAs at the polyadenylation site. Virology254:213–219
    [Google Scholar]
  269. Shuai K., Stark G. R., Kerr I. M., Darnell J. E. Jr. 1993; A single phosphotyrosine residue of Stat91 required for gene activation by interferon-gamma. Science261:1744–1746
    [Google Scholar]
  270. Shuai K., Horvath C. M., Huang L. H., Qureshi S. A., Cowburn D., Darnell J. E. Jr. 1994; Interferon activation of the transcription factor Stat91 involves dimerization through SH2–phosphotyrosyl peptide interactions. Cell76:821–828
    [Google Scholar]
  271. Silverman R. H.. 1997; 2–5A-dependent RNase L: a regulated endoribonuclease in the interferon system. In Ribonucleases: Structure and Function pp515–551 Edited by D’Alessio G., Riordan J. F.. New York: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  272. Silverman R. H., Cirino N. M.. 1997; RNA decay by the interferon-regulated 2–5A system as a host defense against viruses. In mRNA Metabolism and Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation pp295–309 Edited by Hartford J. B., Morris D. R.. New York: Wiley–Liss Inc;
    [Google Scholar]
  273. Singh S. M., Yanagawa H., Hanibuchi M., Miki T., Okamura H., Sone S.. 2000; Augmentation by interleukin-18 of MHC-nonrestricted killer activity of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to interleukin-12. International Journal of Immunopharmacology22:35–43
    [Google Scholar]
  274. Snapper C. M., Paul W. E.. 1987; Interferon-gamma and B cell stimulatory factor-1 reciprocally regulate Ig isotype production. Science236:944–947
    [Google Scholar]
  275. Snapper C. M., Peschel C., Paul W. E.. 1988; IFN-gamma stimulates IgG2a secretion by murine B cells stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Journal of Immunology140:2121–2127
    [Google Scholar]
  276. Snapper C. M., McIntyre T. M., Mandler R., Pecanha L. M., Finkelman F. D., Lees A., Mond J. J.. 1992; Induction of IgG3 secretion by interferon gamma: a model for T cell-independent class switching in response to T cell-independent type 2 antigens. Journal of Experimental Medicine175:1367–1371
    [Google Scholar]
  277. Sprent J., Zhang X., Sun S., Tough D.. 1999; T-cell turnover in vivo and the role of cytokines. Immunology Letters65:21–25
    [Google Scholar]
  278. Srivastava S. P., Kumar K. U., Kaufman R. J.. 1998; Phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 mediates apoptosis in response to activation of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase. Journal of Biological Chemistry273:2416–2423
    [Google Scholar]
  279. Staeheli P., Haller O., Boll W., Lindenmann J., Weissman C.. 1986; Mx protein: constitutive expression in 3T3 cells transformed with cloned Mx cDNA confers selective resistance to influenza virus. Cell17:147–158
    [Google Scholar]
  280. Staeheli P., Grob R., Meier E., Sutcliffe J. G., Haller O.. 1988; Influenza virus-susceptible mice carry Mx genes with a large deletion or a nonsense mutation. Molecular and Cellular Biology8:4518–4523
    [Google Scholar]
  281. Staeheli P., Pitossi F., Pavlovic J.. 1993; Mx proteins: GTPases with antiviral activity. Trends in Cell Biology3:268–272
    [Google Scholar]
  282. Stark G. R., Kerr I. M., Williams B. R. G., Silverman R. H., Schreiber R. D.. 1998; How cells respond to interferons. Annual Review of Biochemistry67:227–264
    [Google Scholar]
  283. Starr R., Hilton D. J.. 1999; Negative regulation of the JAK/STAT pathway. BioEssays21:47–52
    [Google Scholar]
  284. Starr R., Willson T. A., Viney E. M., Murray L. J. L., Rayner J. R., Jenkins B. J., Gonda T. J., Alexander W. S., Metcalf D., Nicola N. A., Hilton D. J.. 1997; A family of cytokine-inducible inhibitors of signalling. Nature387:917–921
    [Google Scholar]
  285. Steinhoff U., Muller U., Schertler A., Hengartner H., Aguet M., Zinkernagel R. M.. 1995; Antiviral protection by vesicular stomatitis virus-specific antibodies in alpha/beta interferon receptor-deficient mice. Journal of Virology69:2153–2158
    [Google Scholar]
  286. Stranden A. M., Staeheli P., Pavlovic J.. 1993; Function of the mouse Mx1 protein is inhibited by overexpression of the PB2 protein of influenza virus. Virology197:642–651
    [Google Scholar]
  287. Subramaniam P. S., Johnson H. M.. 1997; A role for the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 in the G1 cell cycle arrest mediated by the type I interferons. Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research17:11–15
    [Google Scholar]
  288. Subramaniam P. S., Cruz P. E., Hobeika A. C., Johnson H. M.. 1998; Type I interferon induction of the Cdk-inhibitor p21WAF1 is accompanied by ordered G1 arrest, differentiation and apoptosis of the Daudi B-cell line. Oncogene16:1885–1890
    [Google Scholar]
  289. Symons J. A., Alcami A., Smith G. L.. 1995; Vaccinia virus encodes a soluble type I interferon receptor of novel structure and broad species specificity. Cell81:551–560
    [Google Scholar]
  290. Szabo S. J., Jacobson N. G., Dighe A. S., Gubler U., Murphy K. M.. 1995; Developmental commitment to the Th2 lineage by extinction of IL-12 signaling. Immunity2:665–675
    [Google Scholar]
  291. Takaoka A., Tanaka N., Mitani Y., Miyazaki T., Fujii H., Sato M., Kovarik P., Decker T., Schlessinger J., Taniguchi T.. 1999; Protein tyrosine kinase Pyk2 mediates the Jak-dependent activation of MAPK and Stat1 in IFN-γ, but not IFN-α, signaling. EMBO Journal18:2480–2488
    [Google Scholar]
  292. Takizawa T., Fukuda R., Miyawaki T., Ohashi K., Nakanishi Y.. 1995; Activation of the apoptotic Fas antigen-encoding gene upon influenza virus infection involving spontaneously produced beta-interferon. Virology209:288–296
    [Google Scholar]
  293. Takizawa T., Ohashi K., Nakanishi Y.. 1996; Possible involvement of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase in cell death by influenza virus infection. Journal of Virology70:8128–8132
    [Google Scholar]
  294. Tan S. L., Katze M. G.. 1998; Biochemical and genetic evidence for complex formation between the influenza A virus NS1 protein and the interferon-induced PKR protein kinase. Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research18:757–766
    [Google Scholar]
  295. Tan S. L., Katze M. G.. 1999; The emerging role of the interferon-induced PKR protein kinase as an apoptotic effector: a new face of death?Journal of. Interferon and Cytokine Research19:543–554
    [Google Scholar]
  296. Tanaka N., Sato M., Lamphier M. S., Nozawa H., Oda E., Noguchi S., Schreiber R. D., Tsujimoto Y., Taniguchi T.. 1998; Type I interferons are essential mediators of apoptotic death in virally infected cells. Genes and Cells3:29–37
    [Google Scholar]
  297. Tay C. H., Yu L. Y., Kumar V., Mason L., Ortaldo J. R., Welsh R. M.. 1999; The role of LY49 NK cell subsets in the regulation of murine cytomegalovirus infections. Journal of Immunology162:718–726
    [Google Scholar]
  298. Taylor D. R., Shi S. T., Romano P. R., Barber G. N., Lai M. M.. 1999; Inhibition of the interferon-inducible protein kinase PKR by HCV E2 protein. Science285:107–110
    [Google Scholar]
  299. Thanos D.. 1996; Mechanisms of transcriptional synergism of eukaryotic genes. The interferon-beta paradigm. Hypertension27:1025–1029
    [Google Scholar]
  300. Tominaga K., Yoshimoto T., Torigoe K., Kurimoto M., Matsui K., Hada T., Okamura H., Nakanishi K.. 2000; IL-12 synergizes with IL-18 or IL-1β for IFN-γ production from human T cells. International Immunology12:151–160
    [Google Scholar]
  301. Tough D. F., Borrow P., Sprent J.. 1996; Induction of bystander T cell proliferation by viruses and type I interferon in vivo. Science272:1947–1950
    [Google Scholar]
  302. Tough D. F., Sun S., Zhang X., Sprent J.. 1999; Stimulation of naive and memory T cells by cytokines. Immunology Reviews170:39–47
    [Google Scholar]
  303. Trinchieri G.. 1995; Interleukin-12: a proinflammatory cytokine with immunoregulatory functions that bridge innate resistance and antigen-specific adaptive immunity. Annual Review of Immunology13:251–276
    [Google Scholar]
  304. Trowsdale J., Hanson I., Mockridge I., Beck S., Townsend A., Kelly A.. 1990; Sequences encoded in the class II region of the MHC related to the ‘ABC’ superfamily of transporters. Nature348:741–744
    [Google Scholar]
  305. Twu J. S., Schloemer R. H.. 1989; Transcription of the human beta interferon gene is inhibited by hepatitis B virus. Journal of Virology63:3065–3071
    [Google Scholar]
  306. Upton C., Mossman K., McFadden G.. 1992; Encoding of a homolog of the IFN-γ receptor by myxoma virus. Science258:1369–1372
    [Google Scholar]
  307. Van Antwerp D. J., Martin S. J., Kafri T., Green D. R., Verma I. M.. 1996; Suppression of TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis by NF-kappaB. Science274:787–789
    [Google Scholar]
  308. Van Antwerp D. J., Martin S. J., Verma I. M., Green D. R.. 1998; Inhibition of TNF-induced apoptosis by NF-kappa B. Trends in Cell Biology8:107–111
    [Google Scholar]
  309. van den Broek M. F., Muller U., Huang S., Aguet M., Zinkernagel R. M.. 1995a; Antiviral defense in mice lacking both alpha/beta and gamma interferon receptors. Journal of Virology69:4792–4796
    [Google Scholar]
  310. van den Broek M. F., Muller U., Huang S., Zinkernagel R. M., Aguet M.. 1995b; Immune defence in mice lacking type I and/or type II interferon receptors. Immunology Reviews148:5–18
    [Google Scholar]
  311. Veals S. A., Schindler C., Leonard D., Fu X. Y., Aebersold R., Darnell J. E. Jr, Levy D. E.. 1992; Subunit of an alpha-interferon-responsive transcription factor is related to interferon regulatory factor and Myb families of DNA-binding proteins. Molecular and Cellular Biology12:3315–3324
    [Google Scholar]
  312. Vilcek J., Sen G.. 1996; Interferons and other cytokines. In Fields Virology pp375–399 Edited by Fields B. N., Knipe D. M., Howley P. M. Philadelphia: Lippincott–Raven;
    [Google Scholar]
  313. Visvanathan K. V., Goodbourn S.. 1989; Double-stranded RNA activates binding of NF-κB to an inducible element in the human β-interferon promoter. EMBO Journal8:1129–1138
    [Google Scholar]
  314. Wang C. Y., Mayo M. W., Baldwin A. S. Jr. 1996; TNF- and cancer therapy-induced apoptosis: potentiation by inhibition of NF-kappaB. Science274:784–787
    [Google Scholar]
  315. Watanabe N., Sakakibara J., Hovanessian A. G., Taniguchi T., Fujita T.. 1991; Activation of IFN-β element by IRF-1 requires a post-translational event in addition to IRF-1 synthesis. Nucleic Acids Research19:4421–4428
    [Google Scholar]
  316. Wathelet M. G., Lin C. H., Parekh B. S., Ronco L. V., Howley P. M., Maniatis T.. 1998; Virus infection induces the assembly of coordinately activated transcription factors on the IFN-β enhancer in vivo. Molecular Cell1:507–518
    [Google Scholar]
  317. Weaver B. K., Kumar K. P., Reich N. C.. 1998; Interferon regulatory factor 3 and CREB-binding protein/p300 are subunits of double-stranded RNA-activated transcription factor DRAF1. Molecular and Cellular Biology18:1359–1368
    [Google Scholar]
  318. Weihua X., Ramanujam S., Lindner D. J., Kudaravalli R. D., Freund R., Kalvakolanu D. V.. 1998; The polyoma virus T antigen interferes with interferon-inducible gene expression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA95:1085–1090
    [Google Scholar]
  319. Wen Z., Zhong Z., Darnell J. E.. 1995; Maximal activation of transcription by STAT1 and STAT3 requires both tyrosine and serine phosphorylation. Cell82:241–250
    [Google Scholar]
  320. Whitten T. M., Quets A. T., Schloemer R. H.. 1991; Identification of the hepatitis B virus factor that inhibits expression of the beta interferon gene. Journal of Virology65:4699–4704
    [Google Scholar]
  321. Williams B. R.. 1999; PKR; a sentinel kinase for cellular stress. Oncogene18:6112–6120
    [Google Scholar]
  322. Wong A. H., Tam N. W., Yang Y. L., Cuddihy A. R., Li S., Kirchhoff S., Hauser H., Decker T., Koromilas A. E.. 1997; Physical association between STAT1 and the interferon-inducible protein kinase PKR and implications for interferon and double-stranded RNA signaling pathways. EMBO Journal16:1291–1304
    [Google Scholar]
  323. Wu M., Lee H., Bellas R. E., Schauer S. L., Arsura M., Katz D., FitzGerald M. J., Rothstein T. L., Sherr D. H., Sonenshein G. E.. 1996; Inhibition of NF-kappaB/Rel induces apoptosis of murine B cells. EMBO Journal15:4682–4690
    [Google Scholar]
  324. Xu X., Fu X. Y., Plate J., Chong A. S.. 1998; IFN-gamma induces cell growth inhibition by Fas-mediated apoptosis: requirement of STAT1 protein for up-regulation of Fas and FasL expression. Cancer Research58:2832–2837
    [Google Scholar]
  325. Yan H., Krishnan K., Greenlund A. C., Gupta S., Lim J. T. E., Schreiber R. D., Schindler C. W., Krolewski J. J.. 1996; Phosphorylated interferon-α receptor 1 subunit (IFNaR1) acts as a docking site for the latent form of the 113 kDa STAT2 protein. EMBO Journal15:1064–1074
    [Google Scholar]
  326. Yang Y.-L., Reis L. F. L., Pavlovic J., Aguzzi A., Schafer R., Kumar A., Williams B. R. G., Aguet M., Weissmann C.. 1995; Deficient signalling in mice devoid of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR. EMBO Journal14:6095–6106
    [Google Scholar]
  327. Yang D. D., Conze D., Whitmarsh A. J., Barrett T., Davis R. J., Rincon M., Flavell R. A.. 1998; Differentiation of CD4+ T cells to Th1 cells requires MAP kinase JNK2. Immunity9:575–585
    [Google Scholar]
  328. Yeow W. S., Lawson C. M., Beilharz M. W.. 1998; Antiviral activities of individual murine IFN-alpha subtypes in vivo: intramuscular injection of IFN expression constructs reduces cytomegalovirus replication. Journal of Immunology160:2932–2939
    [Google Scholar]
  329. Yeow W. S., Au W. C., Juang Y. T., Fields C. D., Dent C. L., Gewert D. R., Pitha P. M.. 2000; Reconstitution of virus-mediated expression of interferon-alpha genes in human fibroblast cells by ectopic interferon regulatory factor-7. Journal of Biological Chemistry275:6313–6320
    [Google Scholar]
  330. Yeung M. C., Liu J., Lau A. S.. 1996; An essential role for the interferon-inducible, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase PKR in the tumor necrosis factor-induced apoptosis in U937 cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA:93:12451–12455
    [Google Scholar]
  331. Yokoo J., Gotoh B., Komatsu T., Takeuchi K., Miyadai T.. 1999; Replication-incompetent Sendai virus can suppress the antiviral action of type I interferon. Archives of Virology144:1043–1055
    [Google Scholar]
  332. Yokosawa N., Kubota T., Fujii N.. 1998; Poor induction of interferon-induced 2′,5′-oligoadenylate synthetase (2–5 AS) in cells persistently infected with mumps virus is caused by decrease of STAT-1α. Archives of Virology143:1985–1992
    [Google Scholar]
  333. Yoneyama M., Suhara W., Fukuhara Y., Sato M., Ozato K., Fujita T.. 1996; Autocrine amplification of type I interferon gene expression mediated by interferon stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3). Journal of Biochemistry120:160–169
    [Google Scholar]
  334. Yoneyama M., Suhara W., Fukuhara Y., Fukuda M., Nishida E., Fujita T.. 1998; Direct triggering of the type I interferon system by virus infection: activation of a transcription factor complex containing IRF-3 and CBP/p300. EMBO Journal17:1087–1095
    [Google Scholar]
  335. York I. A., Rock K. L.. 1996; Antigen processing and presentation by the class I major histocompatibility complex. Annual Review of Immunology14:369–396
    [Google Scholar]
  336. Yoshimoto T., Takeda K., Tanaka T., Ohkusu K., Kashiwamura S., Okamura H., Akira S., Nakanishi K.. 1998; IL-12 up-regulates IL-18 receptor expression on T cells, Th1 cells, and B cells: synergism with IL-18 for IFN-gamma production. Journal of Immunology161:3400–3407
    [Google Scholar]
  337. Young H. A.. 1996; Regulation of interferon-gamma gene expression. Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research16:563–568
    [Google Scholar]
  338. Young D. F., Didcock L., Goodbourn S., Randall R. E.. 2000; Paramyxoviridae use distinct virus-specific mechanisms to circumvent the interferon response. Virology269:383–390
    [Google Scholar]
  339. Yue Z., Shatkin A. J.. 1997; Double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is regulated by reovirus structural proteins. Virology234:364–371
    [Google Scholar]
  340. Zamanian-Daryoush M., Mogensen T. H., DiDonato J. A., Williams B. R.. 2000; NF-κB activation by double-stranded-RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) is mediated through NF-κB-inducing kinase and IκB kinase. Molecular and Cellular Biology20:1278–1290
    [Google Scholar]
  341. Zhang L., Pagano J. S.. 2000; Interferon regulatory factor 7 is induced by Epstein–Barr virus latent membrane protein 1. Journal of Virology74:1061–1068
    [Google Scholar]
  342. Zhang J. J., Vinkemeier U., Gu W., Chakravarti D., Horvath C. M., Darnell J. E. Jr. 1996; Two contact regions between Stat1 and CBP/p300 in interferon-γ signaling. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA93:15092–15096
    [Google Scholar]
  343. Zhang F., Wang D. Z., Boothby M., Penix L., Flavell R. A., Aune T. M.. 1998a; Regulation of the activity of IFN-gamma promoter elements during Th cell differentiation. Journal of Immunology161:6105–6112
    [Google Scholar]
  344. Zhang J. J., Zhao Y., Chait B. T., Lathem W. W., Ritzi M., Knippers R., Darnell J. E. Jr. 1998b; Ser727-dependent recruitment of MCM5 by Stat1α in IFN-γ-induced transcriptional activation. EMBO Journal17:6963–6971
    [Google Scholar]
  345. Zhang X., Sun S., Hwang I., Tough D. F., Sprent J.. 1998c; Potent and selective stimulation of memory-phenotype CD8+ T cells in vivo by IL-15. Immunity8:591–599
    [Google Scholar]
  346. Zhao H., De B. P., Das T., Banerjee A. K.. 1996; Inhibition of human parainfluenza virus-3 replication by interferon and human MxA. Virology220:330–338
    [Google Scholar]
  347. Zhou A., Paranjape J., Brown T. L., Nie H., Naik S., Dong B., Chang A., Trapp B., Fairchild R., Colmenares C., Silverman R. H.. 1997; Interferon action and apoptosis are defective in mice devoid of 2′,5′-oligoadenylate-dependent RNase L. EMBO Journal16:6355–6363
    [Google Scholar]
  348. Zhou A., Paranjape J. M., Der S. D., Williams B. R., Silverman R. H.. 1999; Interferon action in triply deficient mice reveals the existence of alternative antiviral pathways. Virology258:435–440
    [Google Scholar]
  349. Zhu M., John S., Berg M., Leonard W. J.. 1999; Functional association of Nmi with Stat5 and Stat1 in IL-2- and IFNγ-mediated signaling. Cell96:121–130
    [Google Scholar]
  350. Zimring J. C., Goodbourn S., Offermann M. K.. 1998; Human herpesvirus 8 encodes an interferon regulatory factor (IRF) homolog that represses IRF-1-mediated transcription. Journal of Virology72:701–707
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-81-10-2341
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-81-10-2341
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error