1887

Abstract

In order to facilitate an analysis of the pattern of herpes simplex virus gene expression during latency establishment and reactivation, recombinant viruses containing the lacZ reporter gene under control of either the immediate early 110 (IE110) promoter or the latency-associated promoter have been constructed. Histochemical staining of ganglia taken from mice infected with these viruses allows for the rapid identification and quantification of sensory neurones in which these two promoters are active. Using the mouse ear model, this study demonstrates that, during the establishment of latency in vivo, IE110 promoter activity is only detectable in ganglia which provide innervation to the site of virus inoculation. Latency, however, is efficiently established not only in these ganglia, but also in adjacent ganglia whose neurones do not innervate the ear, and in which there was no evidence of IE110 expression during the acute phase of infection. This implies that replication-competent virus can efficiently establish latency in the absence of detectable IE110 expression. In addition, it has been possible to investigate viral gene expression in neurones following ganglionic explant culture by monitoring IE110 promoter-driven lacZ expression within reactivating neurones. This study shows that virus can be reactivated from all latently infected ganglia, but that reactivation appears to be more efficient from ganglia which provide innervation to the site of infection. The implications of these results for the mechanisms involved in latency establishment and reactivation are discussed.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-80-5-1323
1999-05-01
2022-05-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/80/5/0801323a.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-80-5-1323&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Ahrens C. H., Russell R. L., Funk C. J., Evans J. T., Harwood S. H., Rohrmann G. F. 1997; The sequence of the Orgyia pseudotsugata multinucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus genome. Virology 229:381–399
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Altschul S. F., Gish W., Miller W., Myers E. W., Lipman D. J. 1990; Basic local alignment search tool. Journal of Molecular Biology 215:403–410
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Altschul S. F., Madden T. L., Schaffer A. A., Zhang J., Zhang Z., Miller W., Lipman D. J. 1997; Gapped BLAST and PSI–BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleic Acids Research 25:3389–3402
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Argaud O., Croizier L., Lopez–Ferber M., Croizier G. 1998; Two key mutations in the host–range specificity domain of the p143 gene of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus are required to kill Bombyx mori larvae. Journal of General Virology 79:931–935
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Ayres M. D., Howard S. C., Kuzio J., Lopez–Ferber M., Possee R. D. 1994; The complete DNA sequence of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Virology 202:586–605
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Becker D., Knebel–Morsdorf D. 1993; Sequence and temporal appearance of the early transcribed baculovirus gene HE65. Journal of Virology 67:5867–5872
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Beniya H., Braunagel S. C., Summers M. D. 1998; Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus : subcellular localization and protein trafficking of BV/ODV-E26 to intracellular membranes and viral envelopes. Virology 240:64–75
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bergold G. H. 1947; Die Isolierung des Polyedervirus und die Natur der Polyeder. Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung 2b:122–143
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Birnbaum M. J., Clem R. J., Miller L. K. 1994; An apoptosis– inhibiting gene from a nuclear polyhedrosis virus encoding a polypeptide with Cys/His sequence motifs. Journal of Virology 68:2521–2528
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Carson D. D., Summers M. D., Guarino L. A. 1991a; Molecular analysis of a baculovirus regulatory gene. Virology 182:279–286
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Carson D. D., Summers M. D., Guarino L. A. 1991b; Transient expression of the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus immediate–early gene, IE–N, is regulated by three viral elements. Journal of Virology 65:945–951
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Chaeychomsri S., Ikeda M., Kobayashi M. 1995; Nucleotide sequence and transcriptional analysis of the DNA polymerase gene of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Virology 206:435–447
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Clem R. J., Robson M., Miller L. K. 1994; Influence of infection route on the infectivity of baculovirus mutants lacking the apoptosis– inhibiting gene p35 and the adjacent gene p94 . Journal of Virology 68:6759–6762
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Crawford A. M., Miller L. K. 1988; Characterization of an early gene accelerating expression of late genes of the baculovirus Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Journal of Virology 62:2773–2781
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Croizier G., Croizier L., Argaud O., Poudevigne D. 1994; Extension of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus host range by interspecific replacement of a short DNA sequence in the p143 helicase gene. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 91:48–52
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Crook N. E., Clem R. J., Miller L. K. 1993; An apoptosis–inhibiting baculovirus gene with a zinc finger–like motif. Journal of Virology 67:2168–2174
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Durantel D., Croizier L., Ayres M. D., Croizier G., Possee R. D., Lopez–Ferber M. 1998; The pnk/pnl gene (ORF 86) of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus is a non–essential, immediate early gene. Journal of General Virology 79:629–637
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Eldridge R. L., Li Y., Miller L. K. 1992; Characterization of a baculovirus gene encoding a small conotoxinlike polypeptide. Journal of Virology 66:6563–6571
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Friesen P. D., Miller L. K. 1987; Divergent transcription of early 35- and 94-kilodalton protein genes encoded by the Hin dIII K genome fragment of the baculovirus Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Journal of Virology 61:2264–2272
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Gearing K. L., Possee R. D. 1990; Functional analysis of a 603 nucleotide open reading frame upstream of the polyhedrin gene of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Journal of General Virology 71:251–262
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Gombart A. F., Pearson M. N., Rohrmann G. F., Beaudreau G. S. 1989; A baculovirus polyhedral envelope-associated protein: genetic location, nucleotide sequence, and immunocytochemical characterization. Virology 169:182–193
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Gomi S., Zhou C. E., Yih W., Majima K., Maeda S. 1997; Deletion analysis of four of eighteen late gene expression factor gene homologues of the baculovirus, BmNPV. Virology 230:35–47
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Hashimoto Y., Kanamori Y., Hayakawa T., Katayama Y., Kamita S. G., Maeda S., Matsumoto T. 1994; Physical mapping of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus strain Dl: identification of novel interspersed homologous regions. Applied Entomology and Zoology 29:442–448
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Hu N. T., Lu Y. F., Hashimoto Y., Maeda S., Hou R. F. 1994; The p10 gene of natural isolates of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus encodes a truncated protein with an M of 7700. Journal of General Virology 75:2085–2088
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Huybrechts R., Guarino L., Van Brussel M., Vulsteke V. 1992; Nucleotide sequence of a transactivating Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus immediate early gene. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1129:328–330
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Iatrou K., Ito K., Witkiewicz H. 1985; Polyhedrin gene of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Journal of Virology 54:436–445
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Kamita S. G., Maeda S. 1993; Inhibition of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) replication by the putative DNA helicase gene of Autographa californica NPV. Journal of Virology 67:6239–6245
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Kamita S. G., Maeda S. 1997; Sequencing of the putative DNA helicase-encoding gene of the Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus and fine–mapping of a region involved in host range expansion. Gene 190:173–179
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Kamita S. G., Majima K., Maeda S. 1993; Identification and characterization of the p35 gene of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus that prevents virus–induced apoptosis. Journal of Virology 67:455–463
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Kondo A., Maeda S. 1991; Host range expansion by recombination of the baculoviruses Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus and Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Journal of Virology 65:3625–3632
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Kool M., Vlak J. M. 1993; The structural and functional organization of the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus genome. Archives of Virology 130:1–16
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Kovacs G. R., Guarino L. A., Graham B. L., Summers M. D. 1991; Identification of spliced baculovirus RNAs expressed late in infection. Virology 185:633–643
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Krappa R., Knebel–Morsdorf D. 1991; Identification of the very early transcribed baculovirus gene PE-38. Journal of Virology 65:805–812
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Krappa R., Roncarati R., Knebel–Morsdorf D. 1995; Expression of PE38 and IE2, viral members of the C3HC4 finger family, during baculovirus infection: PE38 and IE2 localize to distinct nuclear regions. Journal of Virology 69:5287–5293
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Kuzio J., Pearson M. N., Harwood S. H., Funk C. J., Evans J. T., Slavicek J. M., Rohrmann G. F. 1999; Sequence and analysis of the genome of a baculovirus pathogenic for Lymantria dispar . Virology 253:17–34
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Lanier L. M., Volkman L. E. 1998; Actin binding and nucleation by Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus. Virology 243:167–177
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Lu M., Iatrou K. 1996; The genes encoding the P39 and CG30 proteins of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Journal of General Virology 77:3135–3143
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Lu M., Iatrou K. 1997; Characterization of a domain of the genome of BmNPV containing a functional gene for a small capsid protein and harboring deletions eliminating three open reading frames that are present in AcNPV. Gene 185:69–75
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Lu A., Miller L. K. 1995; Differential requirements for baculovirus late expression factor genes in two cell lines. Journal of Virology 69:6265–6272
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Lu A., Miller L. K. 1996; Species–specific effects of the hcf–1 gene on baculovirus virulence. Journal of Virology 70:5123–5130
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Lu M., Johnson R. R., Iatrou K. 1996; Trans-activation of a cell housekeeping gene promoter by the IE1 gene product of baculoviruses. Virology 218:103–113
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Lu M., Swevers L., Iatrou K. 1998; The p95 gene of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus : temporal expression and functional properties. Journal of Virology 72:4789–4797
    [Google Scholar]
  43. McLachlin J. R., Miller L. K. 1997; Stable transformation of insect cells to coexpress a rapidly selectable marker gene and an inhibitor of apoptosis. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology Animal 33:575–579
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Maeda S. 1984; A plaque assay and cloning of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Journal of Sericultural Science of Japan 53:547–548
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Maeda S. 1989; Gene transfer vectors of a baculovirus, Bombyx mori, and their use for expression of foreign genes in insect cells. In Invertebrate Cell System Applications vol 1 pp 167–181 Edited by Mitsuhashi J. Boca Raton: CRC Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Maeda S., Majima K. 1990; Molecular cloning and physical mapping of the genome of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Journal of General Virology 71:1851–1855
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Maeda S., Kawai T., Obinata M., Fujiwara H., Horiuchi T., Saeki Y., Sato Y., Furusawa M. 1985; Production of human alpha-interferon in silkworm using a baculovirus vector. Nature 315:592–594
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Maeda S., Kamita S. G., Kataoka H. 1991; The basic DNA–binding protein of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus : the existence of an additional arginine repeat. Virology 180:807–810
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Majima K., Kobara R., Maeda S. 1993; Divergence and evolution of homologous regions of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Journal of Virology 67:7513–7521
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Martin O., Croizier G. 1997; Infection of a Spodoptera frugiperda cell line with Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus. Virus Research 47:179–185
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Mikhailov V. S., Marlyev K. A., Ataeva J. O., Kullyev P. K., Atrazhev A. M. 1986; Characterization of 3/–5/ exonuclease associated with DNA polymerase of silkworm nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Nucleic Acids Research 14:3841–3857
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Mikhailov V. S., Mikhailova A. L., Iwanaga M., Gomi S., Maeda S. 1998; Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus encodes a DNA–binding protein capable of destabilizing duplex DNA. Journal of Virology 72:3107–3116
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Morishima N., Okano K., Shibata T., Maeda S. 1998; Homologous p35 proteins of baculoviruses show distinctive anti–apoptotic activities which correlate with the apoptosis–inducing activity of each virus. FEBS Letters 427:144–148
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Nagamine T., Sugimori H., Nakamura K., Saga S., Kobayashi M. 1991; Nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for p40, an occluded virion–specific polypeptide of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 58:290–293
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Ohkawa T., Majima K., Maeda S. 1994; A cysteine protease encoded by the baculovirus Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Journal of Virology 68:6619–6625
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Olszewski J., Miller L. K. 1997; Identification and characterization of a baculovirus structural protein, VP1054, required for nucleocapsid formation. Journal of Virology 71:5040–5050
    [Google Scholar]
  57. O’Reilly D. R., Crawford A. M., Miller L. K. 1989; Viral proliferating cell nuclear antigen (letter). Nature 337:606
    [Google Scholar]
  58. O’Reilly D. R., Miller L. K., Luckow V. A. 1994; Gene organization, regulation, and function. In Baculovirus Expression Vectors (A Laboratory Manual) pp 12–23 New York: Oxford University Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Passarelli A. L., Miller L. K. 1994; In vivo and in vitro analyses of recombinant baculoviruses lacking a functional cg30 gene. Journal of Virology 68:1186–1190
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Possee R. D., Rohrmann G. F. 1997; Baculovirus genome organization and evolution. In The Baculoviruses pp 109–140 Edited by Miller L. K. New York: Plenum Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Rapp J. C., Wilson J. A., Miller L. K. 1998; Nineteen baculovirus open reading frames, including LEF–12, support late gene expression. Journal of Virology 72:10197–10206
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Roncarati R., Knebel–Morsdorf D. 1997; Identification of the early actin–rearrangement–inducing factor gene, arif–1, from Autographa californica multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Journal of Virology 71:7933–7941
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Russell R. L. Q., Funk C. J., Rohrmann G. F. 1997; Association of a baculovirus–encoded protein with the capsid basal region. Virology 227:142–152
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Sakurai M., Shikata M., Sano Y., Hashimoto Y., Matsumoto T. 1998; Virulence of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus infection of non–permissive cultured cells of the silkworm, Bombyx mori . Journal of Sericultural Science of Japan 67:211–216
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Schetter C., Oellig C., Doerfler W. 1990; An insertion of insect cell DNA in the 81–map–unit segment of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus DNA. Journal of Virology 64:1844–1850
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Schuler G. D., Altschul S. F., Lipman D. J. 1991; A workbench for multiple alignment construction and analysis. Proteins 9:180–190
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Shikata M., Sano Y., Hashimoto Y., Matsumoto T. 1998; Isolation and characterization of a temperature–sensitive mutant of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus for a putative RNA polymerase gene. Journal of General Virology 79:2071–2078
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Takahashi S., Ushiyama S., Suzuki T., Ogawa K., Oda K. 1997; Purification and characterization of cysteine proteinase from a baculovirus gene. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 61:1507–1511
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Thiem S. M., Miller L. K. 1989; A baculovirus gene with a novel transcription pattern encodes a polypeptide with a zinc finger and a leucine zipper. Journal of Virology 63:4489–4497
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Tomita S., Kanaya T., Kobayashi J., Imanishi S. 1995; Isolation of p 10 gene from Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus and study of its promoter activity in recombinant baculovirus vector system. Cyto–technology 17:65–70
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Vialard J. E., Richardson C. D. 1993; The 1, 629-nucleotide open reading frame located downstream of the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus polyhedrin gene encodes a nucleocapsid–associated phosphoprotein. Journal of Virology 67:5859–5866
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Volkman L. E., Goldsmith P. A. 1982; Generalized immunoassay for Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus infectivity in vitro. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 44:227–233
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Wang H., Xin J. H., Gu M. Z., Li Z. P. 1985; The polyhedrin gene of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Scientia Sinica Series B 28:1051–1059
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Whitt M. A., Manning J. S. 1988; A phosphorylated 34-kDa protein and a subpopulation of polyhedrin are thiol linked to the carbohydrate layer surrounding a baculovirus occlusion body. Virology 163:33–42
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Wolgamot G. M., Gross C. H., Russell R. L. Q., Rohrmann G. F. 1993; Immunocytochemical characterization of p24, a baculovirus capsid-associated protein. Journal of General Virology 74:103107
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Yoshitake N. 1988 Introduction for the Study of Origin and Differentiation of the Domestic Silkworm Tokyo: Laboratory of Sericulture, Dept of Agriculture, University of Tokyo;
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Zanotto P. M., de A., Sampaio M. J. A., Johnson D. W., Rocha T. L., Maruniak J. E. 1992; The Anticarsia gemmatalis nuclear polyhedrosis virus polyhedrin gene region: sequence analysis, gene product and structural comparisons. Journal of General Virology 73:1049–1056
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Zemskov E. A., Abramova E. B., Mikhailov V. S. 1992; Induction of a novel protein kinase in pupae of the silkworm Bombyx mori after infection with nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Journal of General Virology 73:3231–3234
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Zhang Y., Wu X., Li Z. 1995; p10 genes of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus and Autographa californica multiple nuclear poly– hedrosis virus. Science in China Series B 38:50–59
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-80-5-1323
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-80-5-1323
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error