1887

Abstract

Murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV-68) is a gamma2-herpesvirus that upon experimental infection of laboratory mice establishes a latent infection in B lymphocytes. To date, no virus-encoded gene products have been reported to be expressed during latent infection. In this study, viral transcription has been analysed in a persistently infected B-cell line and abundant and preferential transcription of open reading frame M3 has been identified. Significantly, in situ hybridization analysis of latently infected mouse spleens with probes corresponding to 20 MHV-68 ORFs demonstrated active transcription of a single ORF, corresponding to M3. The kinetics and pattern of transcription of M3 were compared with that of the virally encoded tRNAs (vtRNAs), previously demonstrated to constitute a marker for latent infection in the spleen. Transcription of vtRNAs in splenic tissue could be first detected at 7 days post-inoculation (p.i.) in scattered cells in periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths (PALS). At 10 days p.i., vtRNA transcription was widespread and localized not only to cells in PALS but also to cells within developing germinal centres and from 21 days p.i. expression was detected exclusively within lymphoid follicles. Transcription of vtRNAs could be detected as late as 70 days p.i. In contrast, the histological localization of M3 transcription, which was first detected at 7 days p.i. in scattered cells in PALS, never changed and transcription could not be detected beyond 21 days p.i. These results suggest that M3 is an ORF that is expressed early during the establishment of latency .

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-80-1-75
1999-01-01
2022-05-29
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/80/1/0800075a.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-80-1-75&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Arrand J. R., Rymo L. 1982; Characterization of the major Epstein–Barr virus-specific RNA in Burkitt lymphoma-derived cells. Journal of Virology 41:376–389
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Ausubel F. M., Brent R., Kingston R. E., Moore D. D., Seidman J. G., Smith J. A., Struhl K., Albright L. M., Coen D. M., Varki A. 1997 Current Protocols in Molecular Biology Edited by Chanda V. New York: John Wiley;
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Blaskovic D., Stancekova M., Svobodova J., Mistrikova J. 1980; Isolation of five strains of herpesviruses from two species of free living small rodents. Acta Virologica 24:468
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bowden R. J., Simas J. P., Davis A. J., Efstathiou S. 1997; Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 encodes tRNA-like sequences which are expressed during latency. Journal of General Virology 78:1675–1687
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Cesarman E., Nador R. G., Bai F., Bohenzky R. A., Russo J. J., Moore P. S., Chang Y., Knowles D. M. 1996; Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus contains G protein-coupled receptor and cyclin D homologs which are expressed in Kaposi’s sarcoma and malignant lymphoma. Journal of Virology 70:8218–8223
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Efstathiou S., Ho Y. M., Hall S., Styles C. J., Scott S. D., Gompels U. A. 1990a; Murine herpesvirus 68 is genetically related to the gammaherpesviruses Epstein–Barr virus and herpesvirus saimiri. Journal of General Virology 71:1365–1372
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Efstathiou S., Ho Y. M., Minson A. C. 1990b; Cloning and molecular characterization of the murine herpesvirus 68 genome. Journal of General Virology 71:1355–1364
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Jacob J., Kassir R., Kelsoe G. 1991; In situ studies of the primary immune response to (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl. I. The architecture and dynamics of responding cell populations. Journal of Experimental Medicine 173:1165–1175
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Kohler G., Milstein C. 1976; Derivation of specific antibody-producing tissue culture and tumour lines by cell fusion. European Journal of Immunology 6:511–519
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Liu Y. J., Zhang J., Lane P. J., Chan E. Y., MacLennan I. C. 1991; Sites of specific B cell activation in primary and secondary responses to T cell-dependent and T cell-independent antigens. European Journal of Immunology 21:2951–2962
    [Google Scholar]
  11. McFadden G., Barry M. 1998; How poxviruses oppose apoptosis. Seminars in Virology 8:429–442
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Mackett M., Stewart J. P., Pepper S., de V., Chee M., Efstathiou S., Nash A. A., Arrand J. R. 1997; Genetic content and preliminary transcriptional analysis of a representative region of murine gamma-herpesvirus 68. Journal of General Virology 78:1425–1433
    [Google Scholar]
  13. MacLennan I. C. 1994; Germinal centers. Annual Reviews of Immunology 12:117–139
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Nossal G.J. 1992; The molecular and cellular basis of affinity maturation in the antibody response. Cell 68:1–2
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Rahim S. G., Trivedi N., Bogunovic B. M., Hardy G. W., Mills G., Selway J. W., Snowden W., Littler E., Coe P. L., Basnak I., Whale R. F., Walker R. T. 1996; Synthesis and anti-herpes virus activity of 2′-deoxy-4′-thiopyrimidine nucleosides. Journal of Medical Chemistry 39:789–795
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Sarid R., Flore O., Bohenzky R. A., Chang Y., Moore P. S. 1998; Transcription mapping of the Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) genome in a body cavity-based lymphoma cell line (BC-1). Journal of Virology 72:1005–1012
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Simas J. P., Efstathiou S. 1998; Murine gammaherpesvirus-68: a model for the study of gammaherpesvirus pathogenesis. Trends in Microbiology 6:276–282
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Simas J. P., Bowden R. J., Paige V., Efstathiou S. 1998; Four tRNA-like sequences and a serpin homologue encoded by murine gammaherpesvirus 68 are dispensable for lytic replication in vitro and latency in vivo . Journal of General Virology 79:149–153
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Staskus K. A., Zhong W., Gebhard K., Herndier B., Wang H., Renne R., Beneke J., Pudney J., Anderson D. J., Ganem D., Haase A. T. 1997; Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus gene expression in endothelial (spindle) tumor cells. Journal of Virology 71:715–719
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Sunil-Chandra N. P., Efstathiou S., Arno J., Nash A. A. 1992a; Virological and pathological features of mice infected with murine gammaherpesvirus 68. Journal of General Virology 73:2347–2356
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Sunil-Chandra N. P., Efstathiou S., Nash A. A. 1992b; Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 establishes a latent infection in mouse B lymphocytes in vivo . Journal of General Virology 73:3275–3279
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Sunil-Chandra N. P., Efstathiou S., Nash A. A. 1993; Interactions of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 and B and T cell lines. Virology 193:825–833
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Tugwood J. D., Lau W.-H., O S.-K., Tsao S.-Y., Martin W. M. C., Shiu W., Desgranges C., Jones P. H., Arrand J. R. 1987; Epstein-Barr virus-specific transcription in normal and malignant nasopharyngeal biopsies and in lymphocytes from healthy donors and infectious mononucleosis patients. Journal of General Virology 68:1081–1091
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Usherwood E. J., Stewart J. P., Nash A. A. 1996a; Characterization of tumor cell lines derived from murine gammaherpesvirus-68-infected mice. Journal of Virology 70:6516–6518
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Usherwood E. J., Stewart J. P., Robertson K., Allen D. J., Nash A. A. 1996b; Absence of splenic latency in murine gammaherpesvirus 68-infected B cell-deficient mice. Journal of General Virology 77:2819–2825
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Virgin H. W. IV, Latreille P., Wamsley P., Hallsworth K., Weck K. E., Dal Canto A. J., Speck S. H. 1997; Complete sequence and genomic analysis of murine gammaherpesvirus 68. Journal of Virology 71:5894–5904
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Weck K. E., Barkon M. L., Yoo L. I., Speck S. H. IV, Virgin H. W. 1996; Mature B cells are required for acute splenic infection, but not for establishment of latency, by murine gammaherpesvirus 68. Journal of Virology 70:6775–6780
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Zhong W., Wang H., Herndier B., Ganem D. 1996; Restricted expression of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) genes in Kaposi sarcoma. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 93:6641–6646
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-80-1-75
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-80-1-75
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error