We have investigated the class I-restricted CTL response specific for measles virus haemagglutinin (HA) in the spleens of mice immunized by various mucosal routes with a DNA plasmid carrying the HA gene (pV1j-HA). A single immunization with recombinant DNA injected in the buccal mucosa induced an HA-specific CTL response. Similarly, nasal immunization with the DNA vaccine induced primary CTLs against measles virus HA. Booster immunization did not enhance the CTL activity. Oral or intrajejunal immunization with the plasmid induced a CTL response of lower magnitude. However, this could be potentiated by co-administration of the mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin or cationic lipids (DOTAP). These data show that a CTL response can be generated by mucosal vaccination using DNA vaccines.


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