1887

Abstract

The ability of a live attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) to protect against challenge with cloned SIVmac251/BK28 was evaluated in four cynomolgus macaques. The intravenous infection of the C8 variant of the SIVmac251/32H virus, carrying an in-frame 12 bp deletion in the gene, did not affect the CD4 and CD8 cell counts, and a persistent infection associated with an extremely low virus burden in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was established. After 40 weeks, these monkeys were challenged intravenously with a 50 MID dose of SIVmac251/BK28 virus grown on macaque cells. Four naive monkeys were infected as controls. Monkeys were monitored for 62 weeks following challenge. Attempts to rescue virus from either PBMCs or bone marrow from the C8-vaccin- ated monkeys were unsuccessful, but in two cases virus was re-isolated from lymph node cells. The presence of the SIV provirus with the C8 variant genotype maintaining its original deletion was shown by differential PCR in PBMCs, lymph nodes and bone marrow. Furthermore, in contrast to the control monkeys, the vaccinated monkeys showed normal levels for CD4 and CD8 cells, minimal lymphoid hyperplasia and no clinical signs of infection. Our results confirm that vaccination with live attenuated virus can confer protection. This appears to be dependent on the ability of the C8 variant to establish a persistent but attenuated infection which is necessary for inducing an immune response, as suggested by the persistence of a strong immune B cell memory and by the over-expression of interleukin (IL)-2, interferon- and IL-15 mRNAs in PBMCs of C8-vaccinated monkeys but not in those of control monkeys.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-78-10-2529
1997-10-01
2022-05-28
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/78/10/9349474.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-78-10-2529&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Ahmad S., Lohman M., Marthas M. L., Giavedoni L. D., El-Amad Z., Haigwood N. L., Scandella C. J., Gardner M. B., Luciw P. A., Yilma T. 1994; Reduced viral load in rhesus macaques immunized with recombinant gp160 and challenged with simian immunodeficiency virus. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 10:195–204
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Almond N., Kent K., Cranage P. M., Rud E. W., Clarke B., Stott E. J. 1995; Protection by attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus in macaques against challenge with virus-infected cells. Lancet 345:1342–1344
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Amadori A., Zamarchi R., Ciminale V., Del Mistro A., Siervo S., Alberti A., Colombatti A., Chieco-Bianchi L. 1989; HIV-1 specific B cell activation. A major constituent of spontaneous B cell activation during HIV-1 infection. Journal of Immunology 143:2146–2152
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Amadori A., Zamarchi R., Veronese M. L., Panozzo M., Barelli A., Borri A., Sironi M., Colotta F., Mantovani A., Chieco-Bianchi L. 1991; B cell activation during HIV-1 infection. II. Cell-to-cell interactions and cytokine requirement. JournalofImmunology 146:57–62
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Armitage R. J., MacDuff B. M., Eisenman J., Paxton R., Grabstein K. H. 1995; IL-15 has stimulatory activity for the induction of B cell proliferation and differentiation. Journal of Immunology 154:483–490
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Benveniste O., Vaslin B., Le Grand R., Cheret A., Matheux F., Theodoro F., Cranage M. P., Dormont D. 1996; Comparative interleukin (IL)-2/interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-4/IL-10 responses during acute infection of macaques inoculated with attenuated nef -truncated or pathogenic SIVmac251 virus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA: 933658–3663
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Chomczynsky P., Sacchi N. 1987; Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction. Analytical Biochemistry 162:156–159
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Clements J. E., Montelaro R. C., Zink M. C., Amedee A. M., Miller S., Trichel A. M., Jagerski B., Hauer D., Martin L. N., Bohm R. P., Murphey-Corb M. 1995; Cross-protective immune responses induced in rhesus macaques by immunization with attenuated macrophage-tropic simian immunodeficiency virus. Journal of Virology 69:2737–2744
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Daniel M. D., Kirchhoff F., Czajak S. C., Sehgal P. K., Desrosiers R. C. 1992; Protective effects of a live attenuated SIV vaccine with a deletion in the nef gene. Science 258:1938–1941
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Denesvre C., Le Grand R., Boissin-Cans F., Chakrabarti L., Hurtrel B., Vaslin B., Dormont D., Sonigo P. 1995; Highly attenuated SIVmac142 is immunogenic but does not protect against SIVmac251 challenge. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 11:1397–1406
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Desrosiers R. C., Wyand M., Kodama T., Ringler D. J., Arthur L. O., Sehgal P. K., Letvin N. L., King N. W., Daniel M. D. 1989; Vaccine protection against immunodeficiency virus infection. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA: 686353–6357
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Di Fabio S., Mbawuike I. N., Kiyono H., Fujihashi K., Couch R. B., McGhee J. R. 1994; Quantitation of human influenza virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes: correlation of cytotoxicity and increased numbers of IFN-γ producing CD8+ T cells. International Immunology 6:11–19
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Dittmer U., Nißlein T., Bodemer W., Petry H., Sauermann U., Stahl-Hennig C., Hunsmann G. 1995; Cellular immune response of rhesus monkeys with a partially attenuated nef deletion mutant of the simian immunodeficiency virus. Virology 212:392–397
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Dormont D., Legrand R., Cranage P. M., Greenaway P., Hunsmann G., Stahl-Hennig C., Rossi G. B., Verani P., Stott E. J., Kitchin P., Osterhaus A., De Vries P., Kurth R., Norley S., Heeney J., Biberfeld G., Putkonen P. 1995; Protection of macaques against simian immunodeficiency virus infection with inactivated vaccines : comparison of adjuvants, doses, and challenge viruses. Vaccine 13:295–300
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Giavedoni L. D., Planelles V., Haigwood N. L., Ahmad S., Kluge J. D., Marthas M. L., Gardner M. B., Luciw P. A., Yilma T. D. 1993; Immune response of rhesus macaques to recombinant simian immunodeficiency virus gp130 does not protect from challenge infection. Journal of Virology 67:577–583
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Grabstein K. H., Eisenman J., Shanebeck K., Rauch C., Srinivasan S., Fung V., Beers C., Richardson J., Schoenborn M. A., Ahdieh M., Johnson L., Alderson M. R., Watson J. D., Anderson D. M., Giri J. G. 1994; Cloning of a T cell growth factor that interacts with the β-chain of the interleukin-2 receptor. Science 264:965–968
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Hart A. R., Cloyd M. W. 1990; Interference patterns of human immunodeficiency viruses HIV-1 and HIV-2. Virology 177:1–10
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Heeney J. L., Holterman L., Ten Haaft P., Dubbes R., Koornstra W., Teeuwsen V., Bourquin P., Norley S., Niphuis H. 1994; Vaccine protection and reduced virus load from heterologous macaque-propagated SIV challenge. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 10:S117–S121
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hu S. L., Abrams K., Berber G. N., Moran P., Zarling J. M., Langlois A. J., Kuller A. J., Mortan W. R., Benveniste R. E. 1992; Protection of macaques against SIV infection by subunit vaccines of SIV envelope glycoprotein gp160. Science 255:456–459
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hulskotte E. G., Geretti A. M., Siebelink K. H., VanAmerongen G., Cranage M. P., Rud E. W., Norley S. G., DeVries P., Osterhaus A. D. 1995; Vaccine-induced virus-neutralizing antibodies and cytotoxic T cells do not protect macaques from experimental infection with simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac32H(j5). Journal of Virology 69:6289–6296
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Israel Z. R., Edmonson P. F., Maul D. H., O’Neil S. P., Mossman S. P., Thiriart C., Fabry L., VanOpstal O., Bruck C., Bex F., Burny A., Fultz P. N., Mullins J. I., Hoover E. A. 1994; Incomplete protection, but suppression of virus burden, elicited by subunit immunodeficiency virus vaccines. Journal of Virology 68:1843–1853
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Kehrl J. H., Fauci A. 1983; Identification, purification and characterization of antigen-activated and antigen-specific human B lymphocytes. Journal of Experimental Medicine 157:1692–1696
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Kestler H. W.III Ringler D. J., Mori K., Panicali D. L., Seghal P. K., Daniel M. D., Desrosiers R. C. 1991; Importance ofthe nef gene for maintenance of high virus loads and for development of AIDS. Cell 65:651–662
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Kieny M. P., Aubertin A. M., Benavente A., Schmitt D., Dott K., Beyer C., Kirn A., Fisher F., Hurtrel B., Riviere Y., Venet A., Mehtali M. 1993; Protection of monkeys against SIV infection with live attenuated viruses. In Retroviruses of Human AIDS and Related Animal Diseases pp 211-218 8th Cent Gardes Meeting, Marnes-La-Coquette; Paris, France:25–27October 1993
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Letvin N. L. 1993; Vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus - progress and prospects. New England Journal of Medicine 4:1400–1405
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Letvin N. L., Daniel M. D., Sehgal P. K., Desrosiers R. C., Hunt R. D., Waldron L. M., Mackey J. J., Schmidt D. K., Chalifoux L. V., King N. W. 1985; Induction of AIDS-like disease in macaque monkeys with T-cell tropic retrovirus STLV-III. Science 230:71–73
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Lohman B. L., McChesney M. B., Miller C. J., McGowan E., Joye S. M., Van Rompay K. K. A., Reay E., Antipa L., Pedersen N. C., Marthas M. L. 1994; A partially attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus induces host immunity that correlates with resistance to pathogenic virus challenge. Journal of Virology 68:7021–7029
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Marthas M. L., Sutjipto S., Higgins J., Lohman B. L., Torten J., Luciw P. A., Marx P. A., Pederson N. C. 1990; Immunization with a live, attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) prevents early disease but not infection in rhesus macaques challenged with pathogenic SIV. Journal of Virology 64:3694–3700
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Mills K. H. G., Page M., Kitchin P. 1993; Immunization of macaques with SIV env recombinants: specificity of T cell and antibody responses and evaluation of protective efficacy. Journal of Medical Primatology 22:104–109
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Mitchell T., Risser R. 1992; Interference established in mice by infection with Friend murine leukemia virus. Journal of Virology 66:5696–5702
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Mori A., Suko M., Kaminuma O., Inoue S., Ohmura T., Nishizaki Y., Nagahori T., Asakura Y., Hoshino A., Okumura Y., Sato G., Ito K., Okudaira H. 1996; IL-15 promotes cytokine production on human T helper cells. Journal of Immunology 156:2400–2405
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Murphey-Corb M., Martin L. N., Davison-Fairburn B., Montelaro R. C., Miller M., West M., Ohkawa S., Baskin G. B., Zhang J. Y., Putney S. D., Allison A. C., Eppstein D. A. 1989; A formalin-inactivated whole SIV vaccine confers protection in macaques. Science 246:1293–1297
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Naidu M. Y., Kestler H. W.III Li Y., Butler C. V., Silva D. P., Schmidt D. K., Troup C. D., Sehgal P. K., Sonigo P., Daniel M. D., Desrosiers R. C. 1988; Characterization of infectious molecular clones of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac) and human immunodeficiency virus type 2 : persistent infection of rhesus monkeys with molecularly cloned SIVmac. Journal of Virology 62:4691–4696
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Norley S., Beer B., Binninger-Schinzel D., Cosma C., Kurth R. 1996; Protection from pathogenic SIVmac challenge following shortterm infection with a nef-deficient attenuated virus. Virology 219:195–205
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Prasad V. R., Myrick K., Haseltine W., Stephen P. G. 1990; Expression of enzymatically active reverse transcriptase of simian immunodeficiency virus in bacteria : sensitivity to nucleotide analogue inhibitors. Virology 179:896–900
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Putkonen P., Walther L., Zhang Y. J., Li S. L., Nilsson C., Albert J., Biberfeld P., Thorstensson R., Biberfeld G. 1995; Long-term protection against SIV-induced disease in macaques vaccinated with a live attenuated HIV-2 vaccine. Nature Medicine 1:914–918
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Rose J., Silvera P., Flanagan B., Kitchin P., Almond N. 1995; The development of PCR-based assays for the detection and differentiation of simian immunodeficiency virus in vivo. Journal of Virological Methods 51:229–240
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Rud E. W., Yon J. R., Larder B. A., Clarke B. E., Cook N., Cranage M. 1992; Infectious molecular clone of SIVmac32H: nef deletion controls ability to re-isolate virus from rhesus macaques. Vaccine 92:229–235
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Rud E. W., Cranage M., Yon J., Quirck J., Ogilvie L., Cook N., Webster S., Dennis M., Clarke B. E. 1994; Molecular and biological characterization of simian immunodeficiency virus macaque strain 32H provirus clones containing nef size variants. Journal ofGeneral Virology 75:529–543
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Saiki R. K., Scharf S., Faloona F., Mullis K. B., Horn G. T., Erlich H. A., Arnheim N. 1985; Enzymatic amplification of beta globin genomic sequences and restriction site analysis for diagnosis of sickle cell anemia. Science 230:1350–1354
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Salter R. D., Howell D. N., Cresswell P. 1985; Genes regulating HLA class-I antigen expression in T-B lymphoblast hybrids. Immuno- genetics 21:235–246
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Seder R. 1996; High dose IL-2 and IL-15 enhance the in vitro priming of naive CD4+ T cells for IFN-γ but have different effects on priming for IL-4. Journal of Immunology 156:2413–2422
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Stahl-Hennig C., Voss G., Dittmer U., Coulibaly C., Petry H., Makoschey B., Cranage M. P., Aubertin A. M., Luke W., Hunsman G. 1993; Protection of monkeys by a split vaccine against SIVmac depends upon biological properties of the challenge virus. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 7:787–795
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Stott E. J. 1991; Anti-cell antibody in macaques. Nature 353:393
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Titti F., Koanga-Mogtomo M. L., Borsetti A., Geraci A., Sernicola L., Panzini G., Turillazzi G. P., Baroncelli S., Giovannetti A., Zamarchi R., Amadori A., Dianzani F., Chieco-Bianchi L., Rossi G. B., Verani P. 1993; Immunization of Macaca fascicularis with inactivated SIV preparations: a) challenge with human- or monkey-derived SIV; b) effects of a longer immunization schedule. Journal of Medical Primatology 22:110–118
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Titti F., DeRossi A., Geraci A., Masiero S., Corrias F., Panzini L., Sernicola L., Maggiorella M. T., Baroncelli S., Fabiani M., Amadori A. , Verani P. 1996; Immunotherapy of SIV- infected Macaca fascicularis with an inactivated SIV immunogen. Cellular Pharmacology AIDS Science 3:123–128
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Whatmore A. M., Cook N., Hall G. A., Sharpe S., Rud E. W., Cranage M. P. 1995; Repair and evolution of nef in vivo modulates simian immunodeficiency virus virulence. Journal of Virology 69, 5117- 5123
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Zamarchi R., Veronese M. L., Titti F., Geraci A., Verani P., Rossi G. B., Amadori A., Chieco-Bianchi L. 1993; In vitro spontaneous production of anti-SIV antibodies is a reliable tool in the follow-up of protection of SIV-vaccinated monkeys. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 9:1139–1144
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Zou W., Lackner A. A., Simon M., Durand-Gasselin I., Galanaud P., Desrosiers R. C., Emilie D. 1997; Early cytokine and chemokine gene expression in lymph nodes of macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus is predictive of disease outcome and vaccine efficacy. Journal of Virology 71:1227–1236
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-78-10-2529
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-78-10-2529
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error