1887

Abstract

The physical properties of hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles were determined by ultracentrifugation on 20–60% isopycnic sucrose density gradients. We report that (i) two populations of HCV particles were found in the sera of patients with chronic HCV infection [at high density (1.186–1.213 g/ml) and at low density (1.099–1.127 g/ml)], (ii) virus particles with high density values were associated with immunoglobulin, and (iii) virus particles with low density values accumulated base changes within a hypervariable region (HVR) of the E2 envelope domain of the RNA genome. The results indicate that base changes within the HVR of E2 lead to the accumulation of immunoglobulin-free virus particles. Therefore, these findings imply that persistent HCV infection is established as a consequence of sequence variation in the E2 envelope domain.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-76-9-2337
1995-09-01
2021-10-28
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/76/9/JV0760092337.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-76-9-2337&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Alter M. J., Margolis H. S., Krawczynski K., Judson F., Mares A., Alexander J., Hu P. A., Miller J. K., Gerber M., Sampliner R. E., Meeks E. L., Beach M. J. 1992; The natural history of community-acquired hepatitis C in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine 327:1899–1905
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bradley D. W., McCaustland K., Krawczynski K., Spelbring J., Humphrey C., Cook E. H. 1991; Hepatitis C virus: buoyant density of the factor VUI-derived isolate in sucrose. Journal of Medical Virology 34:206–208
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Chomczynski P., Sacchi N. 1987; Single step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform. Analytical Biochemistry 162:156–159
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Choo Q.-L., Kuo G., Weiner A. J., Overby L. R., Bradley D. W., Houghton M. 1989; Isolation of a cDNA clone derived from a blood-borne non-A, non-B viral hepatitis genome. Science 244:359–362
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Feinstone S. M., Mihalik K. B., Kamimura H. J., Alter H. J., London W. T., Purcell R. H. 1983; Inactivation of hepatitis B virus and non-A, non-B hepatitis by chloroform. Infection and Immununity 41:816–821
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Han J. H., Shyamala V., Richman K. H., Brauer M. J., Irvine B., Urdea M. S., Tekamp-Olson P., Kuo G., Choo Q.-L., Houghton M. 1991; Characterization of the terminal regions of hepatitis C viral RNA: identification of conserved sequences in the 5′ untranslated region and poly(A) tails at the 3′ end. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 88:1711–1715
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Higashi Y., Kakumu S., Yoshioka K., Wakita T., Mizokami M., Ohba K., Ito Y., Ishikawa T., Takayanagi M., Nagai Y. 1993; Dynamics of genome changes in the E2/NS1 region of hepatitis C virus in vivo. Virology 197:659–668
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Huikata M., Shimizu Y., Kata H., Iwamoto A., Shih J. W., Alter H. J., Purcell R. H., Yoshikura H. 1993; Equilibrium centrifugation studies of hepatitis C virus: evidence for circulating immune complexes. Journal of Virology 67:1953–1958
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Kaito M., Watanabe S., Tsukiyama-Kohara K., Yamaguchi K., Kobayashi Y., Konishi M., Yokoi M., Ishida S., Suzuki S., Kohara M. 1994; Hepatitis C virus particle detected by immuno-electron microscopic study. Journal of General Virology 75:1755–1760
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Kanto T., Hayashi N., Takehara T., Hagiwara H., Mita E., Naito M., Kasahara A., Fusamoto H., Kamada T. 1994; Buoyant density of hepatitis C virus recovered from infected hosts: two different features in sucrose equilibrium density-gradient centrifugation related to degree of liver inflammation. Hepatology 19:296–302
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Kato N., Yokosuka O., Hosoda K., Ito Y., Otho M., Omata M. 1993; Quantification of hepatitis C virus by competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction: increase of the virus in advanced liver disease. Hepatology 18:16–20
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Kato N., Ootsuyama Y., Sekiya H., Ohkoshi S., Nakazawa T., Hijikata M., Shimotohno K. 1994; Genetic drift in hypervariable region 1 of the viral genome in persistent hepatitis C viral infection. Journal of Virology 68:4776–A784
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Miller R. H., Purcell R. H. 1990; Hepatitis C virus shares amino acid sequence similarity with pestiviruses and flaviviruses as well as members of two plant virus supergroups. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 87:2057–2061
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Miyamoto H., Okamoto H., Sato K., Tanaka T., Mishiro S. 1992; Extraordinarily low density of hepatitis C virus estimated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation and the polymerase chain reaction. Journal of General Virology 73:715–718
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Oldstone M. B. A. 1989; Viral persistence. Cell 56:517–520
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Piatak M., Saag M. S., Yang L. C., Clark S. J., Kappes J. C., Luk K.-C., Hahn B. H., Shaw G. M., Lifson J. D. 1993; High levels of HIV-1 in plasma during all stages of infection determined by competitive PCR. Science 259:1749–1754
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Sanger F., Nicklen S., Coulson A. R. 1977; DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 74:5463–5467
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Simmonds P., Holmes E. C., Cha T.-A., Chan S.-W., McOmish F., Irvine B., Beall E., Yap P. L., Kolberg J., Urdea M. S. 1992; Classification of hepatitis C virus into six major genotypes and a series of subtypes by phylogenetic analysis of the NS-5 region. Journal of General Virology 74:2391–2399
    [Google Scholar]
  19. So H.-S., Yang J.-Y., Kim C.-H., Park Y.-W., Choi D.-Y., Ryu W.-S., Cho J. M. 1994; Expression of structural proteins of hepatitis C virus by recombinant vaccinia virus. In Vaccine’94: Modem Approaches to New Vaccines including Prevention of AIDS pp 362–367 Edited by Norrby E., Brown F., Chanock R. M., Ginsberg H. S. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Taniguchi S., Okamoto H., Sakamoto M., Kojima M., Tsuda F., Tanaka T., Munekata E., Muchmore E. E., Peterson D. A., Mishiro S. 1993; A structurally flexible and antigenically variable N-terminal domain of the hepatitis C virus E2/NS1 protein: implication for an escape from antibody. Virology 195:297–301
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Weiner A. J., Brauer M. J., Rosenblatt J., Richman K. H., Tung J., Crawford K., Bonino F., Saracco G., Choo Q.-L., Houghton M., Han J. H. 1991; Variable and hypervariable domains are found in the regions of HCV corresponding to the flavivirus envelope and NS1 proteins and the pestivirus envelope glycoproteins. Virology 180:842–848
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Weiner A. J., Geysen H. M., Christopherson C., Hall J. E., Mason T. J., Saracco G., Bonino F., Crawford K., Marion C. D., Crawford K. A., Brunetto M., Barr P. J., Miyamura T., McHutchinson J., Houghton M. 1992; Evidence for immune selection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) putative envelope glycoprotein variants: potential role in chronic HCV infections. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 89:3468–3472
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-76-9-2337
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-76-9-2337
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error