We have analysed the site of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) DNA integration in clones originating from a transformed primary mouse fibroblast cell line established by transfection of linear BPV-1 DNA. Viral DNA was integrated at a single site in the host genome with an intact early region and an almost complete long control region. Sequence analysis showed that the BPV-1 DNA was integrated at the dIII site (the enzyme used to linearize the BPV-1 DNA for transfection) with short deletions at both ends. These deletions correspond to a 534 bp segment spanning the 3′ end of the L1 open reading frame and the replication enhancer element in the BPV-1 genome. The cellular sequences 5′ to the viral integration site exhibited 85 to 97% identity to several sequences belonging to the mouse L1 family of long interspersed repetitive sequences. Cellular sequences 3′ to the viral DNA exhibited no significant similarity to any known sequence. The BPV-1 sequences and the cellular flanking sequences were found to be amplified 45- to 50-fold. All the cell clones shared an identical integration site but one of the clones had an additional population of amplified and integrated BPV-1 DNA molecules with an internal deletion of 1136 bp in the late region. The significance of viral DNA integration at a murine long interspersed repetitive sequence containing an amplification-promoting sequence is discussed.


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