1887

Abstract

Summary

We investigated the specificity of the T helper (T) cell immune response to three alphaviruses: Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE), eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) and western equine encephalitis (WEE). Single cell suspensions were prepared from spleens of virus-primed C3H mice, and T lymphocyte populations were enriched by nylon wool chromatography. T cells were incubated with irradiated, syngeneic splenic stimulator cells previously exposed to purified virus. Cellular proliferation was measured by [H]thymidine uptake 5 days post-stimulation. The predominant proliferating cell type secreted interleukin-2 and was of the T cell phenotype Thy-1, Lyt-1,2, L3T4. Stimulation of VEE, EEE and WEE virus-primed T cells with homologous and heterologous virus resulted primarily in a proliferative response specific for the immunizing virus. The corresponding antibody response, as measured by ELISA using purified virus as antigen, was also specific for the immunizing virus. The magnitude of the blastogenic response of VEE TC-83 virus-primed lymphocytes to a battery of VEE subtype viruses was remarkably similar to schemes of antigenic classification. The results indicate that the dominant T cell epitopes on these alphaviruses represent regions largely virus-specific and lead to a virus-specific B cell response which does not change over time after primary inoculations of mice with VEE and WEE viruses and multiple inoculations of mice with EEE virus.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-70-11-2877
1989-11-01
2022-01-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/70/11/JV0700112877.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-70-11-2877&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Aaskov J. G., Dalglish D. A., Davies C. E. A., Tucker M., Donaldson M. D. 1983; Cell-mediated immune response to Ross River virus in mice: evidence for a defective effector cell response. Australian Journal of Experimental and Biological Sciences 61:529–540
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Adler W. H., Rabinowitz S. G. 1973; Host defenses during primary Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus infection in mice. II. In vitro methods for the measurement and qualitation of the immune response. Journal of Immunology 110:1354–1362
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Boere W. A. M., Harmsen T., Vinje J., Benaissa-trouw B. J., Kraaijeveld C. A., Snippe H. 1984; Identification of distinct antigenic determinants on Semliki Forest virus by using monoclonal antibodies with different antiviral activities. Journal of Virology 52:575–582
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Burns W. H., Billups L. C., Notkins A. L. 1975; Thymus dependence of viral antigens. Nature London: 256654–656
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Casals J. 1957; The arthropod-borne group of animal viruses. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences 19:219–235
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Casals J. 1963; Relationships among arthropod-borne animal viruses determined by cross-challenge tests. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 12:587–596
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Chanas A. C., Gould E. A., Clegg J. C. S., Varma M. G. R. 1982; Monoclonal antibodies to Sindbis virus glycoprotein El can neutralize, enhance infectivity, and independently inhibit haemagglutination or haemolysis. Journal of General Virology 58:37–46
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Chang G. -J., Trent D. W. 1987; Nucleotide sequence of the genome region encoding the 26S mRNA of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus and the deduced amino acid sequence of the viral structural proteins. Journal of General Virology 68:2129–2142
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Chestnut R. W., Grey H. M. 1981; Studies on the capacity of B cells to serve as antigen presenting cells. Journal of Immunology 126:1075–1079
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Cole F. E. jr, Mckinney R. W. 1971; Cross-protection in hamsters immunized with group A arbovirus vaccines. Infection and Immunity 4:37–43
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Fine D. L., Allen W. P., Wilkins L. B. 1974; Features of cross protection between Sindbis and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses in mice — relationship of route of immunization to protection. Journal of General Virology 24:401–408
    [Google Scholar]
  12. French G. R., Mckinney R. W. 1964; Inactivation of arboviruses. Journal of Immunology 92:772–778
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Gillis S., Smith K. A. 1977; Long-term culture of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Nature London: 268154–156
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Griffin D. E., Johnson R. T. 1973; Cellular immune response to viral infection. In vitro studies of lymphocytes from mice infected with Sindbis virus. Cellular Immunology 9:426–434
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Hunt A. R., Roehrig J. T. 1985; Biochemical and biological characteristics of epitopes on the E1 glycoprotein of western equine encephalitis virus. Virology 142:334–346
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Jagelman S., Suckling A. J., Webb H. E., Bowen E. T. W. 1978; The pathogenesis of avirulent Semliki Forest virus infections in athymic nude mice. Journal of General Virology 41:599–607
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Julius M. H., Simpson E., Herzenberg L. A. 1973; A rapid method for the isolation of functional thymus-derived murine lymphocytes. European Journal of Immunology 3:645–649
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Karabatsos N. 1975; Antigenic relationships of group A arboviruses by plaque reduction neutralization testing. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 24:527–532
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Kinney R. M., Trent D. W., France J. K. 1983; Comparative immunological and biochemical analyses of viruses in the Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex. Journal of General Virology 64:135–147
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Lake P., Mitchison N. A. 1976; Regulatory mechanisms in the immune response to cell-surface antigens. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 41:589–596
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Marker S. C., Ascher M. S. 1976; Specific in vitro lymphocyte transformation with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Cellular Immunology 23:32–38
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Mathews J. H., Roehrig J. T. 1982; Determination of the protective epitopes on the glycoproteins of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus by passive transfer of monoclonal antibodies. Journal of Immunology 129:2763–2767
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Mathews J. H., Roehrig J. T., Trent D. W. 1985; Role of complement and Fc portion of immunoglobulin G in immunity to Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus infection with glycoprotein-specific antibodies. Journal of Virology 55:594–600
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Müllbacher A., Blanden R. V. 1978; Murine cytotoxic T cell response to alphavirus is associated mainly with H-2Dk. Immunogenetics 7:551–561
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Müllbacher A., Marshall I. D., Blanden R. V. 1979; Cross-reactive cytotoxic T-cells to alphavirus infection. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 10:291–296
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Müllbacher A., Marshall I. D., Ferris P. 1986; Classification of Barmah Forest virus as an alphavirus using cytotoxic T cell assays. Journal of General Virology 67:295–299
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Obijeski J. F., Marchenko A. T., Bishop D. H. L., Cann B. W., Murphy F. A. 1974; Comparative electrophoretic analysis of the virus proteins of four rhabdoviruses. Journal of General Virology 22:21–33
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Peck R. D., Brown A., Wust C. J. 1975; Preliminary evidence for cell-mediated immunity in cross-protection among group A arboviruses. Journal of Immunology 114:581–584
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Rabinowitz S. G., Adler W. H. 1973; Host defenses during primary Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus infection in mice. I. Passive transfer of protection with immune serum and immune cells. Journal of Immunology 110:1345–1353
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Roehrig J. T., Mathews J. H. 1985; The neutralization site on the E2 glycoprotein of Venezuelan equine encephalomylitis virus is composed of multiple conformationally stable epitopes. Virology 142:347–356
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Roehrig J. T., Day J. W., Kinney R. M. 1982; Antigenic analysis of the surface glycoproteins of a Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (TC-83) using monoclonal antibodies. Virology 118:269–278
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Roehrig J. T., Hunt A. R., Kinney R. M., Mathews J. M. 1988; In vitro mechanisms of monoclonal antibody neutralization of alphaviruses. Virology 165:66–73
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Schmaljohn A. L., Kokubun K. M., Cole G. A. 1983; Protective monoclonal antibodies define maturational and pH-dependent antigenic changes in Sindbis virus E1 glycoprotein. Virology 130:144–154
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Stanley J., Cooper S. J., Griffin D. E. 1986; Monoclonal antibody cure and prophylaxis of lethal Sindbis virus encephalitis in mice. Journal of Virology 58:107–115
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Suckling A. J., Jagelman S., Webb H. E. 1982; Immunoglobulin synthesis in nude (nu/nu), nu/+ and reconstituted nu/nu mice infected with a demyelinating strain of Semliki Forest virus. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 47:283–288
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Wolcott J. A., Wust C. J., Brown A. 1982; Immunization with one alphavirus cross-primes cellular and humoral immune responses to a second alphavirus. Journal of Immunology 129:1267–1271
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Wolcott J. A., Wust C. J., Brown A. 1985; Cross-reactive target antigen in cell-mediated cytolysis of cells infected with a temperature-sensitive mutant of Sindbis virus. Journal of General Virology 66:1167–1170
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Young N., Johnson K. M. 1969; Antigenic variants of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus: their geographic distribution and epidemiological significance. American Journal of Epidemiology 89:286–307
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-70-11-2877
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-70-11-2877
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error